MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
78 years ago, in the midst of the battle for Moscow, on red square passed the legendary military parade of 1941. Why it was necessary, for which the orchestra was rehearsing in the equestrian arena and how the country’s leaders appealed to the residents to the metro station “Mayakovskaya” — in the material mos.ru.
Today a solemn March will take place on the cobblestones of red square for more than three thousand soldiers, cadets and pupils of the cadet corps. In memory of the parade of 7 November 1941.
What was Moscow in the difficult war days and what happened on the red square 78 years ago— in the material mos.ru.
The fact that the first. The decision did not come immediately
Military parade on red square on 7 November has been a tradition and highlight of the celebrations of the anniversary of the revolution. But in 1941, when Nazi troops were advancing rapidly on the territory of the Soviet Union, it was not until the parade.
The end of October — beginning of November 1941 was perhaps the worst moment of the war for the capital. Was the evacuation of industrial enterprises, mined bridges and factories, the enemy was in about 70-100 kilometers from the city centre.
Therefore, when at a meeting with members of the Politburo and military leaders on 28 October, the commander-in-chief Joseph Stalin unexpectedly asked about the possibility of a military parade, everyone fell silent. He had to repeat the question three times. Only then all responded and started talking at once: “Yes, of course, it will raise the spirit of the troops and the home front!”
The fact of the second. The orchestra rehearsed in secret
November 2 the author of the famous March “Farewell of Slav”, the Kapellmeister of the division named after Dzerzhinsky Basil Agapkina announced that he was appointed principal conductor of the parade and was given the task to collect a combined orchestra. By the time the majority of musicians from the staff of the combined orchestra was in the military units of the garrison, the other went to the front. Came to the aid of the orchestra of Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod).
The main condition for the preparation for the parade was secrecy: the rehearsal of a brass band in red square no one was supposed to hear no marches, no drums, no fanfare. The country’s leadership feared that these sounds can alert the Muscovites and cause panic. So rehearsals were in Khamovniki, in the arena, where was held the first horse race. There has arrived the Deputy people’s Commissar of defence, Marshal Semyon Budyonny, who rode the horse to the sounds of marches and even gave instructions on the repertoire of the orchestra. He had to take the parade.
And the command of the parade entrusted to Lieutenant-General Pavel Artemyev — the commander of the Moscow military district and the Moscow defense zone.
The third fact. The city Council met at the station “Mayakovskaya”
The ceremonial meeting of the Moscow Soviet, dedicated to the 24th anniversary of the October revolution, was appointed on 6 Nov. It was not in the Bolshoi theater, which by that time had already been mined, and at the metro station “Mayakovskaya”. Its lobby could accommodate two thousand people.
In Mayakovskaya organized heavy guard, was ratifitsirovala room.
A November 6, at Belorusskaya has formed a special train of 10 cars, which arrived with the country’s leadership to “Pushkinskaya” five minutes before the start of the meeting. On the opposite side of the platform there was already a rake of 10 wagons, which placed the orchestra, has fitted wardrobes and buffets for parties, and also made a recording Studio.
“Our cause is just — victory will be ours!” — sounded all over the country from there, with the “Mayakovskaya”. These words summed up the speech of Stalin.
Only after the solemn meeting, at about 23:00, parade commander Pavel Artemyev informed the commanders about their participation in the military parade on red square — before it starts was 10 hours.
The fact the fourth. One hour, one minute 20 seconds, which was heard by the whole world
According to the calculations of the military, the parade was to last little more than an hour: detour troops Marshal Budyonny was supposed to take five minutes, the speech of Generalissimo Stalin — five more minutes, the fireworks— one minute 20 seconds, the movement of infantry — 30 minutes, the cavalry — five minutes, artillery and five minutes, and tanks — 10 minutes. Only one hour and one minute 20 seconds.
By 08:00 (for security purposes it was decided to delay the start an hour early) the entire territory of the Moskvoretsky bridge and the building of the Historical Museum was filled with troops. The parade was attended by 28 467 people (infantry, cavalry, Riflemen and machine gunners, artillerymen, tankers, militia). Of technology was presented 296 machine guns, 18 mortars, 12 anti-aircraft guns, 12 and 128 small-caliber guns medium and high power and 160 tanks (70 BT-7, 48 T-60, 40 T-34, two KV).
It is planned participation of 300 aircraft, but due to heavy snowfall and Blizzard air part had to be cancelled.
All was ready for any eventuality. In the case of the bombing of red square was on duty 35 health posts, there were ambulances, five recovery teams, 15 firefighters and other special vehicles for work in the destruction of buildings, gas and electricity networks, the occurrence of fires.
After a brief speech of Stalin at the parade, the massed band played the “Internationale”, and the Sofia quay came the gun salute. Opened the parade of cadets of the 1st Moscow red banner artillery school named after L. B. Krasin to the sounds of March S. A. Chernetsky Parade, cavalry was to the tune of “Cavalry trot”.
Radio broadcast from red square was heard the whole world, the report was led by a famous Soviet radio announcer and journalist Vadim Sinyavsky.
The fact of the fifth. That infuriated Hitler
Hitler turned on the receiver and, as historians, come to indescribable fury. He rushed to the phone and demanded to connect him with the commander of the nearest to Moscow bomber squadron: “you have one hour to atonement. Parade need to bomb, come what may. Immediately fly all your connection. Drive it for yourself. Personally!”
To Moscow has not reached any bomber. As reported the next day, on the borders of the city by the 6th fighter corps and anti-aircraft gunners of antiaircraft defence of Moscow was shot down 34 German aircraft.
The fact of the sixth. We received the first “Oscar”
A brief speech of Stalin at the parade due to commence from 09:00 to 08:00 did not have time to remove the cameramen. Therefore, it was removed later: for this Nov 14, 14 employees “Soyuzkinorynok” and the Radio on the previously produced drawing made of wooden pieces assembled an exact copy of the Central tribune of the Mausoleum in the Sverdlov hall of the former building of the Senate.
The recording of the leader, made the next day, November 15, entered the film filmmakers Varlamov and Kopalin “the Defeat of fascist troops near Moscow”, received in 1943, the first in the USSR American “Oscar” in the nomination “the Best documentary”.
The fact of the seventh. What the newspaper wrote
Fearlessness and courage of the Russian people highly appreciated in the world. English newspaper the News Chronicle wrote: “Organization in Moscow the usual traditional parade the moment on the outskirts of the city there are heated battles, is an excellent example of courage and bravery”.
And the Daily Mail praised the military parade on 7 November 1941 as “one of the most brilliant demonstrations of courage and confidence, which only took place during the war”.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure will not be perfect.