MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
In September, after extensive renovation has opened to the Museum-apartment of I. D. Sytin, located on the second floor of the house 12 on Tverskaya street. Famous Russian educator and publisher have lived within these walls during the last years. The creation of a memorial Museum in the apartment of the descendants Sytin initiated in the 1980s, half a century after his death. Now here is the part of the family archive, more than 50 pieces of furniture and furnishings, as well as about two thousand copies of publications produced under the brand name of “Association of I. D. Sytin and K”.
A virtual tour through the halls, telling about the key events in the life of the legendary publisher, held a memorial head-stock sector of the Department of collections of the Museum Olga Vinogradova.
Portrait of the wife and children’s books
From 1906 to 1928 the Sytin family lived close to their five-story mansion on Easter (now Pushkin) square. In an elegant building in art Nouveau style, the hand to which had the architect Adolf erikhson, engineer Konstantin Shuhov and artist Ivan Bilibin, also housed the editorial office belonged to sytinu of the newspaper “Russian word”, a bookstore and a printing house. To see this building today — it is located at the address: Tverskaya street, house 18.
In 1928, the mansion was occupied by the editorial office of the newspaper “Pravda”, and sytinu given an apartment in the house across the Boulevard. The exchange turned out to be an equipollent — five rooms over five floors.
After the revolution, Sytin met with Lenin and worked for the Soviet government — had the right of free entry and exit from Moscow, has established a supply of paper from Germany and Finland. In 1924 he was sent to America in the uncharacteristic role of impresario. He had to arrange an exhibition of the Soviet artists, but the trip was unsuccessful. However, in 1928 Sytin got an apartment, and one of the first in the nation to receive a pension. First 150 rubles, then 250.
“This great apartment of 115 square meters, five rooms. But he didn’t show off here alone. With him drove 15 people — his children, grandchildren, sons Vasily and Nikolay with their families, — says head of memorial-stock branch of the division of the funds of the Museum-apartment of Olga Vinogradova. His wife, Evdokia Ivanovna Sytin, in this apartment I hadn’t been — she died in 1924 and was buried in the necropolis of the Passion of the monastery. Her grave, like the monastery, did not survive. However, in the hallway we were met by genuine front photo of Ivan Dmitrievich with his wife, founded in 1901. Here are sytinu belonging to the suitcases made in Germany. He often went there — bought paper. Inside the hat box was written his name”.
The first room is the biggest in the apartment, when Sytinich was divided by partitions into three parts. Here lived the youngest children — Charles, Olga, and Anna. Now it is possible to see a working model of the printing press and children’s books of sytinskiy printing.
Sytin not only was making money on book publishing. He sought to spread knowledge among the people. All children’s edition was informative, realistic illustrations. It is known that the publisher was sending artists from the Studio at the printing house in zoos, even abroad, so they studied animals.
Three classes of education and innate business acumen
The following room is devoted to the biography of Sytin. The most powerful publisher in pre-revolutionary Russia was born in 1851 in the village Gnezdilovo Soligalich district, Kostroma province. His father managed to break out of the state peasants in the volost clerks, but its position was weighed, drank, went out of the house. When Sytin Sr. lost his job, it became clear that the first of his four children will not stay in school.
After studying three classes of 12-year-old Ivan went into the service of the uncle, who traded furs at the Nizhny Novgorod fair. Later he was in Moscow at the Beck and call of the merchant Pyotr Nikolayevich Sharapova. There he first encountered the book. The merchant kept the two shops — fur and a book. In places the fur was not, and citino had to work in the second.
About this period in the life of the entrepreneur resemble stored in the Museum of original documents: the contract Sharapov and letters to parents, touching addressed “in Moscow, near the Ilyinsky gates, to the shop of the merchant P. N. Sharapova Ivan Dmitrievich Sitio”.
“Sharapov loved him, took part in his destiny, until they found him a bride Evdokia Ivanovna from the family Sokolov (were such Moscow confectioners). Sytin took her four thousand roubles dowry. Taking the three thousand from Sharapova, bought a lithographic press for the production of these works of art and opened his own business on Voronihina mountain, in the area of modern Dorogomilovsky bridge. It was 7 Dec 1876”, — says Olga Vinogradova.
First capital Sytin earned, showing his entrepreneurial flair during the next Russian-Turkish war. Here is how he described it in his memoirs:
“On the day of Declaration of war in April, 1877, I went to the Kuznetsk Bridge, I bought a map of Bessarabia and Romania and ordered the master during the night to copy part of maps indicating the places where our troops crossed the Prut. At five in the morning the map was finished and put in the car with the inscription: “To the readers of Newspapers. Manual”. As the movement of troops was changed and the map. Within three months I was selling one. No one thought to disturb me.
Competitors was not enough. Other traders in risk was not. To improve production costs did not. I’m in my early business came new: invited capable graphic artists and dedicated printmakers, they were paid more but demanded and best work, studied the tastes of the people. The results were brilliant. My folk paintings were the most salable. Merchants traded with me in quantity but not in price. For all of the product is not enough.”
People’s demand: from woodcut to Leo Tolstoy
Around the same time, Sytin began to publish in color prints — with the lives of saints and secular. Color printing has somewhat increased the cost of production, but at the expense of large print runs and demand managed to keep the price affordable. By the end of the XIX century, Sytin became the largest in Moscow producer of print — in the year of its printing press produced more than two million prints pictures.
“Went well enough that we call thought: astrology, adventure and ladies novels. All this was carried to the villages ofen-Bookman. A native of the village, Sytin know how it works, so created a network of distributors. As he indulged the people’s demand, is seen on the cover of “Boris Godunov” or “Woe from wit”, disguised under love stories,” says Olga Vinogradova.
For the common man “Tovarischestvo I. D. Sytina and” treated with great respect. “Perhaps it is the only Russian publishing firm, where the smell of Russian spirit and the man-the buyer is not pushed in the neck” — wrote about him Anton Chekhov in a letter to Alexei Suvorin.
In 1884, Sytin began to publish the calendars, which were a luxury item. From his printing office came the universal Russian calendar, non-profit, old, military, history — all types not listed. Tear-off calendars with useful information for every day, which Sytin came up to print in 1886, created a furor.
He not only created trends, but was able to grasp. When in 1913 has come to Russia a fashion on vegetarianism, Sytin began to print on calendars together with modest and vegetable recipes and even a vegetarian menu.
A special line in the biography of Sytin — his collaboration with Leo Tolstoy and published by the “Posrednik”. Sytinskiy printing house has released a series of affordable for people in the books of famous writers: the thickest, Vsevolod Garshin, Vladimir Korolenko, Maxim Gorky, and others. Also the series includes an album of reproductions of Russian artists, the Wanderers — Ilya Repin, Vasily Perov, Vasily Pukirev, Gregory Myasoedov, Konstantin Savitsky.
“Big profits series is not brought, but the authority Sytin as the publisher has markedly improved, — said Olga Vinogradova, because now he was released for the people not for public consumption, and serious books. He began to produce and textbooks. Perhaps, riding his publishing activities were such a gorgeous edition, as a historical multi-volume “Three centuries”, dedicated to the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty, as well as Children’s and people’s encyclopedia”.
Five portraits, a lamp and a bust
In the next room, assembled furniture and decorative arts that belonged to Ivan Dmitrievich and his family. On the walls — five portraits, which Sytin moved from the mansion: his parents, his wife, eldest son Vasily and Nikolay Tulupov, well-known educator and associate publisher.
Portrait of the wife of the publisher delivered Alexander Moravians. He also created the famous Sytin, which is now in the Taganrog art Museum. Moravians for several years he taught art and printing school at the Sytin publishing house and worked on the album “Russian history in pictures”. Portrait of Vasily Sytin wrote Georgy Alekseev, a well-known preparation for the publication of one of the most original benefits in mathematics for children — “elementary geometry in pictures for coloring,” also released “Partnership Sytin”.
“Some items of furniture was commissioned by Ivan Dmitrievich in the famous Abramtsevo workshops. Of course, they are not bought for this apartment, and moved out of the mansion, like these beautiful watches with lions and chandelier “Autumn” French company of the brothers Moreau, explains Olga Vinogradova. — Nearby, in the hallway, bust Sytin, the famous sculptor Ilya Ginzburg. Once the bust has stood in the edition of “Russian word””.
Wing chair, wedding ticket
In this apartment Sytin spent the last seven years. They are devoted to the small room which was occupied by Ivan D. — large he settled children. The Holy of holies — so called today the room of the Museum staff.
“Here stood his bed, his favorite wing chair, his cane, — says Olga Vinogradova. — Nearby there is a table with writing another work of Ginzburg — statue of Leo Tolstoy. On the shelf at two important Sytina edition — complete works of Leo Tolstoy and made a lot of noise, “Military encyclopedia”. Sytin was commissioned to work on the best experts in the field of military Affairs, but due to the outbreak of the First world war 23 the planned volume was released only 18”.
One of the most moving exhibits in this hall — ticket wedding of the year 1876, with an invitation to a celebration and ball on the occasion of the wedding of Ivan Dmitrievich and Evdokia Ivanovna. They lived together for nearly 50 years, raised 10 children — six boys and four girls.
Hall of fame
The last room — a kind of hall of fame Ivan Sytin. Here are they produced periodicals. The most famous of them — the magazine “Around the world”, was bought by Sechinym and received under his leadership, new life, and the newspaper “Russian word”. In the Annex to the magazine “Around the world”, he published Thomas Mayne Reid, Jules Verne and other foreign authors. Appendix to “the Russian way” was dedicated to the culture.
In the hall of fame contains exhibits related to the widely celebrated the anniversaries of the publishing activities of Sytin. For example, the 50th anniversary was celebrated in 1917 at the Polytechnic Museum. Many residents of the city, from professors of Moscow University to the tobacco firms sent sytinu greetings, some of which are real works of art. On the eve of round date came the chief work of his life — “half a century for the book.”
Joint material mos.ru and the Agency “Moscow”.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure will not be perfect.