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Source: European Parliament

As the Commission’s report on competition policy for the digital era states, companies can ‘collect, store, and use large amounts of data’, which is ‘not only one of the key ingredients of artificial intelligence but also a crucial input to many online services, production processes, and logistics’. Moreover, ‘experience shows that large incumbent digital players are very difficult to dislodge’ (1) .

Commissioner Vestager correctly asserted that even if companies do not enjoy the dominance of Android, ‘it can be difficult for consumers to switch from one ecosystem to another. So there may be times when we also need to look at the way that these ecosystems can leave consumers locked in’ (2) .

Following Ms Vestager’s announcement on revising the market definition (3) , DG COMP officially started putting forward a proposal that will make remedies more prescriptive.

The ‘cease and desist’ order proved inefficient in the Google shopping case. Can the Commission clarify whether prescriptive remedies mean tackling platforms’ structures as well as their behaviour?

On the cross-usage of data: a platform keeps data to enable the business to enter or expand into related supplier or customer markets (4) . Is there not an inherent conflict of interest when a dominant platform appropriates data (5) from competitors to develop products or services in the same sector as a competitor? Is the Commission investigating the cross-usage of data?

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