MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
Opens section compilation of documents of the war years on the Warsaw uprising in September 1944. The testimony of participants in those historical events, it is clear: the rebellion was not only poorly prepared, but were held for political purposes, not taking into account the expectations and hopes of the greater part of the Polish population. Its organizers, representatives of the home Army, supervised by the Polish emigre government from London, also did not take into account the situation on the Soviet-German front and limited approached the city with the fighting units of the red Army.
Archival documents of the period indicate that despite limited resources, the frazzled heavy fighting the red Army command undertook all possible efforts to support the Warsaw uprising supply of arms, food, fuel, intelligence and artillery strikes.
After the failure of the Warsaw uprising, became known, and other evidence of possible intentional errors and mistakes of the organizers. From the record of survey scout front headquarters with the call sign “Oleg” sent by the rebels to maintain a connection with the red Army, it is clear that the leadership of the rebels deliberately did not conduct offensive operations, the city has not been taken under the control strategic objects, was not erected fortifications, the leadership of the home Army did not seek to join the national troops of the Polish guerrilla organizations and often interfered with their combat operations, interaction with the command of the red Army were often sabotaged. In addition, the documents indicate that units of the Army destroyed the remaining Ukrainians and Jews, and escaping from German captivity Soviet officers forcibly detained as hostages.
Warsaw was liberated by the red Army on 17 January 1945. About what scale and bloody was the battle for the city is evidenced by the mere enumeration of the distinguished units and formations: list them stretched for a full page Order of 17 January 1945, No. 223 about the liberation of Warsaw, awarding of the distinguished parts of the name “Warsaw” and on holding of fireworks in Moscow in honor of the winners of the “twenty-four artillery salvoes from three hundred and twenty-four guns”. The order also emphasizes the role of the 1st Polish army, participated in the liberation of the city.
About the powerful Nazi defense that hacked the troops of the red Army during the liberation of Warsaw, tells shots photo gallery operational control of the 1st Belorussian front “On artamerican of breaking the enemy’s defense forces 1 BF with bridgeheads South of Warsaw.” The album contains unique photographs of a breach, the consequences of the assault and artillery barrage.
The dedication, heroism and bravery of the soldiers of the red Army tell published in the award documents.
So, captain Nikolay Akishin, commander of the 1st infantry battalion 447 th infantry regiment, with his men broke through the deeply echeloned defense of the enemy, took four linear trenches, destroying 150 of the Nazis, captured three heavy mortar rounds, eight artillery pieces and other equipment. “In combat, was wounded three times, not leaving the battlefield until the enemy counterattacks were repulsed”, – shows premium list. Brave officer honoured with the title hero of the Soviet Union.
Courage and valor manifested guard captain Ziya Buniatov. The division under his command, one of the first crossed the river Pilica and detained on the left Bank until reinforcements. Fighters Buniyatov Avenue was captured and destroyed significant enemy forces. “For courage and heroism in battle, worthy of conferring the title hero of the Soviet Union.”
Presented archival documents occupy a special place evidence of the barbarism of the monstrous atrocities and destruction committed by the German occupiers in and around the city. Retreating from Warsaw, they destroyed everything in their path: “Warsaw destroyed. On the streets is not found none damaged homes, entire neighborhoods reduced to ruins. There is not one monument. Cultural values of the city destroyed and looted. Almost every yard there are graves, the streets are scattered the corpses of tortured poles”, – stated in Polygonaceae in GLAMURKI. A particularly horrific lines in this document are those that describe the burial place of the poles in the streets of the city: “outside the Trenches are the graves, according to residents, then buried up to 120 thousand killed and burned by the Germans, the poles.”
However, archival documents telling about the sincere warmth and genuine joy with which the Red Army met the poles on liberated territories. In a report to the head of the Main political Directorate of the red Army been written about the hospitality at the meeting of the liberators by the inhabitants of Warsaw and rest of Poland: “the Red Army and the Polish army, the people greeted enthusiastically, stand for hours in the streets and squares, salutes passing troops”. Also, the report noted the popularity of the Soviet soldiers and officers among the population: “we need only refer to any of the inhabitants as are formed around the crowds of people.”
For the economy to recover desecrated Poland from the Soviet Union was given a huge support, as evidenced by the certificate “About the assistance provided to the population of the Republic of Poland of the 1st Belorussian front from August 1944 until may 1945, and the group of Soviet occupation forces in Germany from may to December 1945”. “Assistance to the Polish population were military units, commandant’s offices, warehouses, Offices and divisions Staff 1 BF … by donation to the representatives of the local Polish authorities in the food, property, livestock, unharvested crops, as well as restoration of the destroyed by the German occupiers economic sites and structures” – the document says. Assisted the Polish population and medically. From the same reference it is clear that, for example, residents of the suburb of Warsaw – Prague – was transferred to a rail wagon of valuable medicines, approximately three thousand people were hospitalized in army hospitals of the front.
In section you will find the declassified documents on atrocities of German fascist invaders on Polish soil. Special interest deserve the testimony of the German prisoner of war lance corporal Weyman, eyewitness German pogroms in the Warsaw ghetto. Prisoner of war testified about the bloody massacres, the humiliation, the hunger and the number of dead: “the food Supply was so low, that thousands of Jews were soon to starve. But this seemed insufficient, so every eight weeks, they were rounded up, deported the Jews in boxcars to the forest, they were forced to strip naked and shot thousands of people.” But also in this document the recorded testimony of how the Jews fought back the SS murder machine. “When the SS men tried to enter the gates of the ghetto opened on them with machine gun and rifle fire… Turned real street fighting. I saw people jump from the Windows of burning houses… This massacre was given to the Germans a hard time, the Jews fought heroically.” The number of murdered Jews is estimated at 30 thousand people.
On the territory of occupied Poland by the Nazis was established several concentration camps, which were intended for mass destruction. After a trip to the death camp Treblinka, which was established in July 1942, between Warsaw and Bialystok, correspondent of the army newspaper “For the Motherland” reported the head of the political Department of the 70th army, which along with Jews, Gypsies, poles and others in the “gas chamber” killed at least 500 Americans and English: “From the stories it is clear that in July 1942, the Germans ordered all the British and Americans to gather in Warsaw to the prison area for the exchange of prisoners of war…” – however, participants were taken to the camp, he previously had taken all the Jews – “was on a par with thousands of others, immediately sent to the so-called bath, where killed”.
Historical value are first published documents about the terrorist activities of the units of the home Army in the rear of the red army on the territory of Poland, Belarus and Lithuania in the years 1944-1945. As evidenced by the reports of the organs of political fronts participated in the battles for Poland, the leadership of the home Army in occupied areas of the Soviet troops even before the fighting for Warsaw, beginning the organization of underground work, with the aim of disrupting local authorities and preparation to violent seizure of power. And in may 1945 the cell of the home Army launched a terror against soldiers of the red Army and the local population.
The publication of declassified documents about the liberation of Warsaw from the funds of the Central archive of the Ministry of defense of Russia is the continuation of the defence Ministry aimed at the preservation and protection of historical truth, countering falsification of history, attempts to revise the results of the great Patriotic and Second world wars.
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EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and/or sentence structure will not be perfect.