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Experts from MOEK spoke to about the reliability of the infrastructure and collaboration with forecasters.

The light European winter that has been observed in the capital in recent years has almost made Muscovites forget about the hard frosts. However, this January and February, thermometers dropped below 27 degrees at night. How even in the most severe frosts they keep Moscow houses warm – see this article.

Complete autonomy

At the Biryulyovo-Borisovskaya pumping station (OPS) on a regular working day, you will not find anyone. The picture would be suitable for a movie about the future: the item is fully automated and works remotely. Monitoring and control, control of hydraulic and electrical parameters – everything is carried out from the control room. The pumping station serves the districts of Orekhovo-Borisovo Severnoe, Orekhovo-Borisovo Yuzhnoye and Zyablikovo – a total of about 400 thousand residents and 784 objects, including 61 schools, 51 kindergartens and 10 hospitals.

We can say that NPS are small hearts that, instead of blood, drive boiling water along the city arteries-highways. Experts call it a coolant. The task of the station is to return the cooled water, which gave up its heat to the batteries, back to the CHP, where it heats up again. There are 24 such pumping stations in Moscow, and in winter frosts about 300-330 thousand cubic meters of coolant circulate in the main networks of the city heat supply system per hour.

It is impossible to sharply increase the temperature of the water in the pipe, otherwise it may be damaged due to thermal deformation. In order to plan the schedule in advance, specialists work closely with forecasters. Those every day send short and medium-term weather forecasts – for one and three to four days.

Andrey Vostrosablin, head of pumping station service, has been working at PJSC Moscow United Energy Company (MOEK) for over 10 years. He emphasizes that in severe frosts, the organization is always on high alert.

“In order to get through the difficult period of lowering temperatures, which is now observed, we are putting additional teams on duty. This shortens the reaction time to abnormal situations, allows you to take additional measures and ensure normal operation. When we prepare equipment in the summer, we always rely on the harshest conditions. Therefore, we can say that for us any work mode is regular, ”says Andrey Vostrosablin.

Despite the fact that Biryulyovo-Borisovskaya is ready for any situation, the likelihood of an emergency is extremely small. In 2019, the pumping station underwent a large-scale reconstruction. All thermo-mechanical components were replaced here: pumps, pipelines and sensors. In 2020, the electrical equipment was completely updated.

Most importantly, the PS systems are duplicated in case of an accident. If the pump fails, then another one will immediately turn on. There are six of them at the station, now there are three in operation – that is, there will always be a device to replace a faulty one.

Weather in the house

The objects that are directly responsible for heating the residents of Moscow are central heating points (CHP). Despite the fact that the point on Bekhterev Street is thermal, it is unusually cold there. The pipe through which hot water from the CHP plant comes here, and all equipment is completely insulated, just to avoid heat loss. By the way, the water that is in the system is not simple, but chemically purified – this prevents the appearance of deposits on pipelines and valves. Experts say that you can even drink it, although this is not recommended.

The temperature of the coolant coming from the CHPP in frosts can reach 130 degrees. However, it is not served in apartments: it is needed to heat the water circulating between the central heating station and the residential building. This is done with the help of special heat exchangers, in which the main and intra-building coolants are alternately driven between the thin plates, without mixing with each other.

At the heat point, the temperature of the coolant entering the batteries of neighboring houses is set. For this, a special valve is installed, which, upon a signal from the weather sensor, opens or closes, increasing or decreasing the supply of the main coolant for heating water in apartment radiators. Hot water is heated according to the same principle – for example, in the evening all residents return from work and the consumption of hot water increases.

Oleg Bondarev, chief engineer of branch No. 6 of PJSC MOEK, notes that the main indicator monitored by specialists is not the temperature of the battery, but the temperature of the air in the apartment of Muscovites.

“According to sanitary and epidemiological rules, the temperature in apartments should be kept in the range from 18 to 24 degrees. For example, now the temperature of the coolant that enters the house is around 74 degrees. Typically, heating starts from the upper floors, and as the temperature decreases from floor to floor, the temperature drops. This is offset by an increase in the number of radiator sections, ”explains the chief engineer.

The central heating station on Bekhtereva Street serves six objects: five residential buildings and one store. There are more than 20 thousand such points in the city.

Predict and prevent

Serving the household needs of Muscovites by MOEK is combined with the introduction of advanced technologies: today, more than 5700 heating points are equipped with an online dispatching system.

There are also about 10 sensors installed in the central heating center on Bekhtereva Street. They send in real time every hour to the control room data on water consumption, temperature and pressure levels. Further, a special system is switched on, which knows the normal values ​​and, based on this, analyzes the readings obtained.

Dmitry Filatov, head of public relations and mass media at MOEK, is proud that the smart program was written by the developers of his company, and says that it helps to save budget and take care of the safety of Muscovites.

“Deviations from standard indicators allow predicting a technological violation that has not yet happened. A change in temperature by one or two degrees, an increase in water consumption, an increase in circulation – the system notices all this. She understands that somewhere in the section of the distribution heating network, there may be a leak that we do not see, and it has not yet turned into a large damage. If earlier it was necessary to wait for a resident to touch the battery and call the housing office, now we see from the instruments that future complications can be prevented. It is easier to change a part costing a thousand rubles or carry out work on the ground for 100 thousand rubles, without waiting until it turns into an emergency, which will turn out to be much more expensive and time-consuming to eliminate and will lead to interruptions in the supply of heat to the townspeople, ”the company representative said.

According to Dmitry Filatov, now the system detects about 20-25 potentially dangerous cases every month and helps to prevent their occurrence. And the amount of heat that the system controls online is equal to the combined consumption of Krasnoyarsk and Novosibirsk.

EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.

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