MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
We celebrate World Writer’s Day with an online walk through the literary museums of the capital and find out how they preserve the memory of those whose names they bear.
Literary museums stand out among the many Moscow museums. In them, you can get acquainted with the history through the biography of your favorite writer or poet, see the things that belonged to him, feel the atmosphere of the place where he lived, which means you can better understand his works. The mos.ru article contains seven museums that work for those who love books.
Museum of M.A. Bulgakov
Apartment 50 at 10 Bolshaya Sadovaya Street is a legendary and mysterious place. This is the first Moscow address of Mikhail Bulgakov and the prototype of the “bad apartment” in which Woland lived with his retinue. This communal apartment, by the way, appears in the stories “Psalm” and “Moonshine Lake”, and in the play “Zoyka’s Apartment”. Where, if not at this address, was the first and only memorial in Russia the Bulgakov Museum.
A room in a huge communal apartment became the writer’s first living quarters in Moscow. Here at night he wrote his first Moscow works. In 1990, the M.A. Bulgakov. His main goal was to open apartment 50 to visitors. This happened in 2007. The museum continues to develop, holds exhibitions and other cultural events both in its own space and at other venues.
“I have two favorite exhibits,” says Maria Kotova. – The first is a bookshelf with two sirens, which Bulgakov bought at a flea market when he just moved to Moscow and got a room. This is a very significant, in my opinion, exhibit that plunges the visitor into the atmosphere of the early 1920s. The second exhibit, very beautiful and important for Bulgakov’s work, is the secretary behind which he wrote “The Master and Margarita”. He did it by candlelight – the writer did not like cold electric light. “
House-Museum of Marina Tsvetaeva
House-Museum of Marina Tsvetaeva located in the very center of Moscow, a stone’s throw from Novy Arbat. Marina Tsvetaeva lived in a one-and-a-half-story apartment of an old mansion, which is more than 150 years old, for eight years. With her husband Sergei Efron and daughter Ariadna Tsvetaeva moved into apartment 3 in 1914. At various times, she called this place “a well of comfort and magic”, then “strange” and even “terrible”, because both happy and difficult years of her life passed here: from the first beautiful years of marriage to the period of post-revolutionary poverty and hunger – his youngest daughter became his victim. The apartment in Borisoglebsky Lane was for Tsvetaeva a place not only for life, but also for creativity: here she wrote many books.
In Soviet times, the house was occupied by communal apartments, the building was quickly destroyed. Thanks to the many years of efforts by Nadezhda Kataeva-Lytkina, it was saved from demolition, the architecture and memorial value were restored. The cultural center “House-Museum of Marina Tsvetaeva” was opened here in 1992, the year of the poetess’s centenary. Kataeva-Lytkina became the first scientific director of the museum.
Today the museum fund has more than 50 thousand items. Among them are personal belongings of the poetess and her relatives, for example, clips bought in Paris at the exhibition, Marina Tsvetaeva’s dress and her sister Anastasia’s icon case.
In recent years, the museum has created two major projects: “Lecture hall at home” (lectures by famous speakers in four areas: theater, music, architecture, literature) and “Theater laboratory of Alisa Grebenshchikova” House “”. In 2020, the museum hosted more than 150 online events, which were watched by 140 thousand viewers.
A special place is occupied by excursions, during which the museum staff turn a visit to the memorial space into a unique one-man show. Over the years, the house-museum hosted evenings with the participation of Svetlana Kryuchkova, Alisa Grebenshchikova, Konstantin Bogomolov, Anatoly Bely, Tatyana Drubich, Svetlana Surganova, Nina Shatskaya, Pyotr Nalich, students of the workshops of Brusnikin, Ryzhakov, Radomyslensky. Musical evenings are regularly held in the museum, old baroque instruments, a grand piano and an organ are played.
“On the other hand, the museum is a multi-genre space, in which there are exhibitions, and theatrical excursions, and performances, and concerts, and a reading competition, and lectures. We try to ensure that all forms of work are connected with the poet’s heritage and cultural traditions. and creative evenings in our home ”, – explains the director of the museum.
Museum K.G. Paustovsky
First exposure museum It was housed from 1975 to 1986 in a club at the Moscow Automobile Plant No. 10. The museum moved later to the building – a monument of wooden architecture on the territory of the Vlakhernskoye-Kuzminki estate.
The first exhibits were collected by members of the literary and dramatic circle of school No. 456. They visited numerous expeditions to places associated with the life and work of the writer: Solotche, Sevastopol, Odessa, Leningrad, Kiev, Tarusa.
The museum appeared thanks to the direct participation of students and admirers of the writer’s work – Bulat Okudzhava, Margarita Aliger, Alexei Batalov. Today it is an important educational and scientific center that studies Paustovsky’s work, holds conferences with the participation of Russian and foreign researchers, publishes his works in Russia and abroad.
The museum seeks to develop new forms of work – theatrical and interactive excursions, museum classes for family and school groups, travel games through the exposition, art therapy classes, and concert programs.
“To actualize Paustovsky’s work in the modern cultural context, we use various methods and means. Special attention is paid to exhibitions. The museum seeks to select themes, focusing on a specific target audience, for example, lovers of poetry, fine art, history or nature – the diverse heritage of Paustovsky and the museum’s fund collection allow us to touch on many important and interesting topics today. We also create virtual exhibitions on the Museum Moscow Online portal, we work a lot in social networks, ”says the director of the museum.
State Museum V.V. Mayakovsky
Museum appeared on October 15, 1938 in Mayakovsky Lane (then – Gendrikov Lane). The poet lived here with Osip and Lilya Brik from 1926 to 1930. Mayakovsky’s first own Moscow dwelling was a room in a communal apartment in Lubyansky Proezd. The poet received it in March 1919. After Mayakovsky acquired a separate apartment, the room on the Lubyanka became his study. In the poem “Good!” there are lines describing it:
“I live in the houses of Stakheev, now Veesenkh.
Squatting into the fire, at rest with eyes to the window,
So that you know better
I swam in a small boat for three thousand days. “
It was the “little boat room” that became the center of the museum, which moved to Lubyansky Proezd from Mayakovsky Lane in 1974. His personal belongings were returned to the poet’s room, and the furniture never left here. The museum has carefully preserved all the exhibits related to the life and work of Mayakovsky. A literary exposition and exhibition hall was opened in the museum, a scientific library was completely transported, a large reading room and a whole subdivision for reference and bibliographic work were created. In 1989, a new exposition was opened, for which the entire internal space of the museum was completely rebuilt.
Now the building is closed for major repairs, but sites are operating on Krasnaya Presnya and in Studenetsky Lane. Mayakovsky lived on Presnya with his mother and sisters Lyudmila and Olga from 1913 to 1915. This is the only surviving of the many rented apartments that the family changed after moving from the Caucasus to Moscow in 1906. Now in the memorial apartment there is an exposition “Daughter” dedicated to the daughter of Vladimir Mayakovsky Patricia Thompson.
The apartment in Studenetsky Lane belonged to the poet’s elder sister Lyudmila Mayakovskaya. In 1972, according to her will, the apartment, along with all the furnishings and household items, was transferred to the Mayakovsky Museum. Thanks to her, the museum’s funds were replenished with documents, letters, manuscripts of the Mayakovsky, as well as things brought by the family from their native Georgia. For about half a century, the apartment was mothballed and inaccessible to visitors; She opened her doors recently – in September 2019.
State Museum of A.S. Pushkin
Decree on the establishment in Moscow State Museum of A.S. Pushkinwas signed on October 5, 1957. In a very short time, the first exposition was prepared, which opened on the poet’s birthday, June 6, 1961. The museum quickly gained popularity. Visitors were attracted by the opportunity to get acquainted with the life and work of their beloved poet in the beautiful halls of the Khrushchev-Seleznev estate.
Later, the museum included two houses associated with the poet’s stay there: the memorial apartment of A.S. Pushkin on the Arbat (in 1986) and the V.L. Pushkin on Staraya Basmannaya (in 2013). Today the State Museum of A.S. Pushkin is one of the largest literary museums in Russia and Europe. It includes two more museums dedicated to writers.
Museum of I.S. Turgenev is located in the estate on Ostozhenka, which from 1840 to 1850 was rented by the mother of the writer Varvara Turgenev, who became the prototype of the lady from “Mumu”. In addition to household items, it contains portraits of Turgenev during his lifetime, the first publications and editions of his works, illustrations for them. The Andrei Bely Memorial Apartment is the only museum in the world dedicated to the writer. It is located at 55 on the corner of Arbat Street and Denezhny Lane, where Bely was born. Here you can see the writer’s things, for example, an icon with the face of Seraphim of Sarov, a velvet hat, in which he is depicted in many photographs, and much more.
Museum of A.S. Pushkin has an extensive collection of unique Pushkin materials – lifetime editions, documentary and manuscript sources, memorials associated with the close circle of the poet, works of fine and decorative applied art, interior items and everyday life of the eras, presented by the museum.
The museum sees its main task in preserving the history and culture of the first third of the 19th century, the literary heritage of Alexander Pushkin and his contemporaries. Education is one of the most important tasks: every day the museum and its branches receive dozens of schoolchildren, students and very young visitors. Special educational programs, master classes, exhibitions and thematic classes are being prepared for them. Another priority of the museum is openness: over the past year, the number of online projects, training courses and lectures has grown significantly.
“Another component of our mission can be considered the organization, coordination and support of close interaction of members of the Community of Pushkin Museums – a community of more than 20 organizations united by the name of the great classic,” says the director of the museum.
Moscow State Museum S.A. Yesenin
In 1995, opened in Moscow Sergei Yesenin Museum… The exhibition was created by a group of enthusiasts and donated to the city. House 24, building 2 in Bolshoy Strochenovsky lane remains the only official address of the poet in Moscow. His father lived here, and Yesenin himself from 1911 to 1918 not only lived, but was also registered. The center of the exposition is Sergei Yesenin’s room. The emphasis is on the Moscow period of his life, but all his work is also represented.
The house in Chernyshevsky Lane became a part of the museum for a reason. Creative evenings and disputes were often held here, which the young Yesenin attended. In 2014, another department of the museum was opened – on Klyazminskaya Street. There is an exposition dedicated to Yesenin’s creative heritage, traveling and exchange exhibitions, as well as concerts and creative evenings.
House N.V. Gogol
The only one in Russia Nikolai Gogol Museumlocated on Nikitsky Boulevard. The writer lived in this house for the last four years of his life, here he worked on the second volume of Dead Souls, and here he burned part of his manuscripts.
Gogol first came to Moscow in 1832 and immediately fell in love with it. “Moscow is my homeland,” he wrote to his friends, he often visited here. In 1848 he accepted the invitation of the prominent statesman Count Alexander Tolstoy to settle in his house on Nikitsky Boulevard.
In 1966, the building was transferred to the city library No. 2. Later, two memorial rooms of Nikolai Gogol were opened with it, the atmosphere of which was recreated according to the recollections of his contemporaries. In 1979, the library was named after the writer, and 30 years later the institution was transformed into the House of N.V. Gogol. The new expanded exposition of the museum was opened on March 27, 2009.
The museum contains genuine historical objects and works of art, as well as things that belonged to Gogol. One of the most frightening and sad exhibits is the death mask of the main mystic of Russian literature.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.