MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
Since the beginning of 2021, specialists have already restored 30 cultural heritage sites.
Sergei Sobyanin examined the results of the restoration of the merchant V.E. Bykov and presented the badges to the title of “Honorary restorer of the city of Moscow”.
“I think you have something to be proud of, you are restoring a huge number of iconic objects in Moscow. And it’s great that your work is interesting, mostly grateful – you are saving the cultural heritage and turning Moscow into a kind, beautiful city, ”Sergei Sobyanin said.
Over the past 10 years, more than 1,500 buildings have been restored in the capital. 120 of them were brought back to life by specialists last year, another 100 objects are to be put in order in 2021, the Mayor of Moscow added.
“It’s even hard to imagine what kind of work it is. This is the world’s largest restoration program. It continues to develop further, because there are many monuments in Moscow. We identify them, register them. Actually, like this house. He has a difficult fate. In 2009 there was a fire here. In fact, all the ceilings have collapsed, and if we had not registered this house as a monument of cultural heritage, I think that we would have simply lost it, ”Sergei Sobyanin said.
The profitable house of the merchant V.E. Bykov, located at 2-ya Brestskaya street, 19/18, building 1, is one of the famous monuments of Moscow Art Nouveau. It was built at the beginning of the last century by the architect Lev Kekushev. In 1905, a Moscow merchant Vasily Bykov acquired a household on 2nd Brestskaya Street from the Kokorin family. In 1909, a four-storey apartment building appeared on the site of the demolished old building, which became a vivid example of profitable construction of the early 20th century. Expressive, wave-shaped facades are distinguished by the unique Kekushevskaya plastic, the subtlety of stucco decoration and complex window frames.
The first floor of the building housed the owner’s office, a bakery, a pharmacy shop and two apartments. The second, third and fourth floors were occupied by apartments, each with an entrance from two stairs – the main one and the black one. In the basement there was a boiler room with a stoker’s room, a doorman’s apartment and storehouses on the ground floor.
During the Soviet era, the building was also occupied by apartments and small shops on the corner. The changes consisted only in the fact that commercial housing turned into communal housing. Since the 1970s, with the gradual resettlement of communal apartments, individual premises were transferred to the use of various administrative institutions.
The balance holder of the house was one of the institutes of the Academy of Sciences, which signed a contract with the investor for its reconstruction. Since the 1990s, the building has been empty and has not been used due to an emergency condition. At the same time, back in the early 2000s, the interior layout, the main constructive and artistic elements and decorative decoration – the original window and door joinery, convex (blown) window panes, stucco decoration, original drainpipes, facade cladding and stucco molding, including a lion’s mask over the travel arch is the trademark of Lev Kekushev.
In September 2009, as a result of a strong fire, part of the fourth floor burned down, the house completely lost its roof. And as a result of this, the upper parts of the walls, ceilings, partitions become wet and their further destruction. Part of the interfloor ceilings collapsed to the entire height of the building – from the top to the first floor. One of the main staircases was completely in ruins. The structures of the building have fallen into disrepair.
In 2008, the Art Nouveau monument was classified as an identified cultural heritage site, and in 2012 it was included in the register of cultural heritage sites as a monument of regional significance, which saved it from destruction.
In 2013, emergency response measures began in the 2,284 square meter building. The foundation and basements of the building were strengthened, longitudinal cracks and frame corrosion were eliminated.
In 2017, the second stage of the revival of the monument began – restoration work. As part of the project, load-bearing brick walls, door and window openings were restored with replacement of losses, and late bookmarks of openings were opened.
On the first floor, restoration and restoration measures were carried out for window and door openings in accordance with the new data. Thus, the specialists restored the initial mark of the window openings on the first floor, combined window and door joinery fillings within one opening along the 2nd Brestskaya and Julius Fucik streets, and also restored the original basement window openings in the pits.
In addition, the restoration and strengthening of the preserved Monier vaults above the first floor and partial replacement of these vaults in the basement with the subsequent restoration of the pitch and character of the curves were carried out. Corrosion cleaning and prosthetics of metal lintels of window openings, reinforcement of metal fittings and anchors of the crown cornice and bay windows were carried out. The lost staircase on 2nd Brestskaya Street has been restored and the staircase on Julius Fucik Street has been restored.
Specialists paid special attention to the return of the historical appearance of the facades of the house. The following works were performed:
– restoration of the lower part of bay windows, crowning cornices, attics and parapets, production and installation of flowerpots on the pillars of parapets;
– restoration of facade stucco decoration, removal of forms from restored decorative elements, casting and their installation in a historical place;
– restoration and restoration of the lost part of the drawn decor, plastering of walls with the restoration of imitation of wild masonry;
– clearing, scraping of masonry, coating and subsequent painting of courtyard facades;
– installation of ebbs on protruding parts of the building, restored or partially restored drainpipes;
– restoration of the original painting of facades and front staircases;
– restoration and installation of a lion mask over the archway.
A large amount of work was carried out during the restoration of the preserved and restoration of the lost architectural elements and interior decor. The main staircase has been restored. The carpentry fillings of the outer window and door openings have been restored, and the restored carvings, such as pilasters on window blocks, have been replaced. Also, the internal partitions of the enfilade rooms on the second floor, doorways and carpentry fillings in them, parquet floors, and decoration of ceilings have been restored.
After restoration, the house will return to its historical function – it will house apartments.
Honorary restorers of Moscow
By the decree of the Mayor of Moscow for their great contribution to the preservation of cultural heritage sites and many years of fruitful work in the field of restoration, the title of “Honorary Restorer of the City of Moscow” was awarded to:
– Tatiana Averina, chief architect of Stroyproektrestavratsiya LLC;
– Tatiana Lapteva, Leading Specialist of the Restoration Technology Department, Sirius Project LLC;
– Vladimir Pokachalov, general director of the design and restoration company Tiamat-project LLC.
Tatiana Averina has been working in the field of preservation of cultural heritage for 44 years. Under her supervision, measurements and studies of architectural monuments, draft and working projects of restoration are carried out. Tatyana Fedorovna is responsible for the supervision of the repair and restoration work at cultural heritage sites. With her participation in Moscow in the 1990s – early 2000s, more than 100 monuments were restored, including the Evangelical Lutheran Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, the Church of Saints Boris and Gleb in Zyuzin, Polivanov’s house, the Leningradskaya Hotel and “Ukraine”. In 2016–2020, under the leadership of Tatyana Averina, the Orlov-Denisov house on Bolshaya Lubyanka was restored.
Tatyana Lapteva has been working in the field of preserving ancient monuments for more than 40 years, she is a technologist-restorer of the highest category. Carries out chemical-technological research of finishing and building materials of cultural heritage objects, develops scientific methodological recommendations for carrying out repair and restoration work, and also carries out field supervision and scientific guidance in the production of restoration work. Her track record includes the restoration of the Central Manege building after the fire, restoration of the Grand Kremlin Palace, the Catherine Hospital (Gagarin’s house), the building of the Levenson AA printing company, Kazan and Yaroslavsky railway stations. In 1999, Tatyana Lapteva took part in the restoration of the Holy Trinity-Sergius Lavra in Sergiev Posad near Moscow.
Vladimir Pokachalov has been working at cultural heritage sites for over 45 years. He carries out all stages of complex scientific research in the field of restoration. According to his individual methods, the historical images of facades and interiors of dozens of creations of past eras have been restored.
Under the leadership and with the participation of Vladimir Pokachalov, projects for the restoration of a number of architectural monuments have been developed. Among them are the Agriculture and Atomic Energy pavilions at VDNKh, the main house of the 19th century estate in Lyalin Lane, the house where Alexander Ivanovich Yuzhin lived, and the house of the Brotherly Society.
In addition, for his contribution to the preservation of cultural heritage sites and many years of conscientious work, the Moscow Mayor’s gratitude was announced to the honorary restorer of the city of Moscow Yevgeny Kokorev, General Director of the ArKo design bureau. According to his author’s projects, more than 40 iconic objects and city estates were restored, including A.V. Lopatina XIX century on Bolshaya Nikitskaya street.
The honorary title “Honorary Restorer of the City of Moscow” was established in 2013 and is awarded to industry professionals who have achieved outstanding success in the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage sites located in Moscow. Applicants for the title must have at least 20 years of experience in the restoration industry.
For the first time the honorary title was awarded in 2014. During this time, 40 people were honored, including those awarded in 2021.
According to the established tradition, the awarding of badges to the honorary title takes place in March and is timed to the anniversary of the establishment in Russia of the specialty “Restoration and reconstruction of architectural heritage” (March 5, 1994).
Moscow is one of the world leaders in the field of preservation of historical and cultural heritage. In 2020, the city continued to implement the world’s largest program for the restoration and revival of architectural monuments and other cultural heritage sites. The work was carried out at 525 objects, 124 of them have been restored.
The restoration of monuments in Moscow is carried out at the expense of the city budget (35 monuments in 2020) and the federal budget (27 sites), private investors and patrons (62 sites, which is 50 percent of the total).
In some cases, restoration work is preceded by accident prevention work. They are aimed at removing the monuments from a grave condition and preparing for further restoration. In 2020, such work was carried out on 14 historical and cultural monuments, and over the past three years, more objects have been saved than in the previous seven years (51 and 48 objects, respectively). Each monument requiring emergency response is under special control.
In total, over the past 10 years, 1,578 cultural heritage sites have been restored in Moscow (including 30 sites since the beginning of 2021). As a result, since 2010, the number of Moscow monuments in an unsatisfactory condition has decreased by 5.3 times. The share of monuments in good and satisfactory condition increased from 66 to 95 percent.
Among the landmark objects, the restoration of which was completed in 2020, are the Northern River Station, the Khudozhestvenny cinema, the Narkomfin residential building, the Orlov-Denisov house, the merchant V.E. Bykov.
It is expected that 2021 will be no less successful in terms of the number of restored architectural monuments. The work is planned to be completed at about 100 objects. Among them:
– an outbuilding of the city estate of D.F. Novikova – A.N. Davydova;
– GES-2 (it will become a new cultural space in the center of Moscow);
– Gymnasium of the Medvednikovs;
– partnership “Einem”;
– city estate I.T. Rakhmanova, N.L. Bukhvostova, S.S. Sulima, merchants Kotovs;
– a residential building with apartments for class ladies and the caretaker of the Mariinsky Women’s School;
– the city estate of the Sokolovs – Sibiryakovs;
– the western wing and the southern service building of the Vorontsovo estate;
– Pavilions of VDNKh No. 5 “Physics”, No. 15 “Radioelectronics and Communications”, No. 30 “Microbiological Industry” and a number of others;
– the main house of the Izmalkovo estate;
– Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker on Three Mountains;
– Yauzskaya city hospital;
– Polytechnical Museum;
– a residential building of the Abrikosovs;
– an educational home.
Since 2012, the Moscow Government’s program for the restoration of emergency architectural monuments “1 ruble per 1 square meter” has been in effect in the capital. Within the framework of the program, 24 emergency architectural monuments were leased. The complex restoration of 20 buildings has already been completed. Currently, work continues on four sites.
The largest restoration site in Moscow in recent years has been the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy. For seven years there have been large-scale restoration and improvement of the territory. Comprehensive restoration has been completed at 23 sites. In particular, in 2020, work was completed on the repair of Pavilion No. 29 “Floriculture and Gardening”. Much has been done and will be finished this year in pavilions No. 1 “Central”, No. 5 “Physics”, No. 6 “Chemistry”, No. 15 “Radioelectronics and Communications”, No. 26 “Transport of the USSR”, No. 30 “Microbiological Industry” … These facilities are scheduled to be completed in 2021.
Work continues at 23 cultural heritage sites of VDNKh. In the coming years, it is planned to complete the restoration of pavilions No. 2 “Public Education”, No. 4 “Biology”, No. 8 “Young Naturalists”, No. 35 “Glavtabak”, No. 59 “Zerno”, No. 64 “Optics”, No. 66 “Soviet Culture “, Cafe” Summer “and others.
Archeology of Moscow
Preservation of heritage is not only the restoration of architectural monuments, but also a great deal of work related to archaeological research. In 2020, archaeologists in the capital have found over 15 thousand various artifacts – treasures, fragments of ancient ceramics, household items and children’s toys. Among them are a coin of the Golden Horde of the late 14th – early 15th century, porcelain dishes and perfume bottles of the 19th – early 20th centuries, fragments of clay toys of the 19th century. Several unique items were restored: a leather shoe for women with carved ornaments from the first half of the 19th century and a fireproof safe from the Moscow firm of Möller.
A well, part of the engineering structure of the Mytishchi water supply system of the second stage of 1830, was also museumified.
Restoration profession in Moscow and work with public organizations
In 2020, three specialists were awarded the title of “Honorary Restorer of the City of Moscow”. Traditionally, at the end of the year, the award ceremony for the laureates of the Moscow Restoration competition took place. 25 specialists and organizations who participated in the restoration of 13 cultural heritage sites became laureates.
Despite the pandemic, in 2020 at the College of Architecture, Design and Reengineering No. 26, she continued to work in the distance format “Restorer School” for students in grades 7-11.
There were also four thematic online marathons dedicated to the Days of Historical and Cultural Heritage, the Day of the Archaeologist and New Year’s holidays (187 thousand views on the YouTube channel and on social networks), 56 online excursions and virtual tours, more than 100 lectures, two local history dictation, four workshops, the Heritage youth forum and the Heritage of My District children’s drawing competition.
Within the framework of the project “Heritage Days. Districts ”after the lifting of restrictions, 382 excursions, 18 lectures and 10 volunteer actions were held.
In 2020, eight volunteer memorial and patronage actions took place to care for the works of monumental sculpture that perpetuate the memory of the events and heroes of the Great Patriotic War.
In addition, seven trips took place, on which the territory of the estates was cleaned. The Manor Volunteers project took part in the events. Volunteer actions were held to care for the artistic gravestones of the Vvedenskoye cemetery and clean up the territories of the Donskoy, Khimki and Kotlyakovsky cemeteries.
Interaction with the Russian Association of Restorers, a non-profit partnership, has become an important trend in recent years. With his support, it became possible to carry out small-scale works, for example, to restore the historical appearance of the sculpture “Worker” on the building of the “Beijing” hotel.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.