MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
On March 20, 1833, the first complete edition of the famous novel in verse was published. We look into the Moscow described by Pushkin.
Moscow was one of the favorite cities of Alexander Pushkin. The poet was born here, spent his childhood, often visited, having matured, met the main love of his life and got married. He also paid attention to Moscow in Eugene Onegin.
Tatyana Larina is sent to the current capital in the seventh chapter. Having experienced the first serious heart disappointment, the girl cannot come to her senses in any way. Then the parents decide that it will be useful for her to spend time in Moscow, where her aunt lives – to be in society, to shine at balls, to make new acquaintances. Together with Tatyana, the mother goes to visit a relative.
We will follow the Larins to winter Moscow in 1822 (according to the research of the literary critic Yuri Lotman, the events of the seventh chapter date back to this time) and make small stops in places that the poet especially highlights.
Petrovsky traveling palace (Leningradsky prospect, 40)
Here, surrounded by its oak forest,
Petrovsky castle. Gloomy he
Recently proud of fame.
The Petrovsky Traveling Palace is the first of the Moscow sights that Tatyana sees before entering the city (the borders were completely different then). This building was built by order of Catherine II after the end of the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774. Dubrava – that is, Petrovsky Park – surrounded it later, at the beginning of the 19th century.
The palace was designed by Matvey Kazakov. The architect never traveled outside of Russia, but despite this, he managed to create an architectural structure similar in spirit to European models – the traveling palace combines features of the Gothic Revival and medieval Russian motives.
The palace was always ready to receive royal persons during their travels. Catherine II herself was here only twice – four days on the way from Novgorod and 10 on the way from the Crimea.
During the fire of 1812, the Emperor Napoleon and his entourage stayed here. This fact is mentioned by Pushkin:
Napoleon waited in vain,
Intoxicated with the last happiness,
With the keys of the old Kremlin:
No, my Moscow did not go
To him with a guilty head.
One can imagine that the Larins see the palace not in the best condition – after the war of 1812 it was plundered. Recovery began later. In 1826, by order of Nicholas I, the architect Ivan Tamansky will begin to prepare a project for the reconstruction of the palace, which will be completed only by the end of the 1830s.
During the First World War, a hospital was set up here, and three years after the revolution, the building was given to the Air Force Academy named after N.E. Zhukovsky. One of its most famous graduates is Yuri Gagarin.
Tverskaya Zastava (in the area of the present Belorussky railway station)
… Let’s go! Already the pillars of the outpost
Turn white; Along Tverskaya
The carriage rushes through the bumps.
Tatiana and Larina Sr. enter Moscow through Tverskaya Zastava, which appeared in 1742 as a new customs border of the city. At first, the outpost was not the most picturesque place – there were only a room for guards, two obelisk pillars and a barrier between them.
In 1814, a wooden arch was erected there – to meet the Russian troops after the victory over the French. A little later, in 1834, the majestic New Triumphal Gate appeared at the Tverskaya Zastava, built by the architect Osip Bove. In the 1960s, they were dismantled and recreated on Kutuzovsky Prospekt.
English club (Tverskaya street, house 21, building 1)
Pharmacies, fashion stores,
Balconies, lions at the gates
And flocks of jackdaws on the crosses.
The lions on the gate will not allow you to make a mistake: this passage is about the English Club – the first and most famous gentlemen’s meeting in Moscow. Young people of noble birth entertained themselves here at their leisure – they gambled, treated themselves to expensive dishes, argued and debated. The club was closed: it was possible to enter it only on the recommendation of a person who was already in it. But that’s not all – the candidate might not have been approved during a secret ballot. And of course, it was easier to fly out of the club than to get there: membership was lost, for example, due to non-payment of card debt.
The history of the estate, where the club was located, begins in 1777-1780. The house in the style of classicism was owned by Major General Lev Razumovsky, who gradually added left and right wings to the building, installed a stone fence with lions over the pylons of the gate. Because of the war of 1812, the owners had to leave Moscow, and upon their return they saw a depressing picture: the house was looted, in the living room, apparently, cattle were slaughtered. It took three years to put the house in order.
After the death of Razumovsky, the house went to his brother-in-law, Prince Nikolai Vyazemsky, and he sold the building to the English Club. Now it houses the Museum of Contemporary History of Russia.
Kharitonevsky lane (now – Bolshoi Kharitonevsky lane)
On this weary walk
An hour or two passes, and now
Have Kharitonya in the alley
The carriage in front of the house at the gate
“At Kharitonya in the alley” – or rather, at the corner of Bolshoy and Maly Kharitonevsky lanes – Pushkin settled Tatyana Larina’s aunt. The writer’s warmest childhood memories were associated with these places.
The Pushkin family lived here for seven years in the early 1800s, it was their favorite area of Moscow (one of the addresses is the wooden wing of the Volkov-Yusupov palace). Little Sasha went with his parents to the local church, walked in the garden, and visited his grandmother Maria Hannibal.
The lane was named after the temple of Charitoniya the Confessor in Ogorodnaya Sloboda, which was erected in 1654. In 1935, the temple was gone.
House of the Noble Assembly (Bolshaya Dmitrovka Street, 1)
It is also brought to Sobranye.
There is tightness, excitement, heat,
Music roar, candles shine,
A flicker, a whirlwind of fast steam …
It is in the House of the Noble Assembly at one of the magnificent balls that Tatyana Larina meets her future husband – the one about whom she will later say to repentant Onegin: “But I have been given to another; I will be faithful to him forever. “
The building in the classicism style, formerly owned by Prince Vasily Dolgoruky-Krymsky, was bought by the Moscow Nobility Assembly in 1784 in order to hold balls and social receptions. The house was rebuilt according to the project of Matvey Kazakov: on the site of the courtyard, for example, they made a large ceremonial hall, which was later called the Column Hall.
The house has become a very popular place. Within its walls gathered the most brilliant society not only in Moscow, but also in St. Petersburg. Alexander Pushkin also often visited the House of the Noble Assembly. According to one version, here he met his wife Natalia Goncharova.
After the revolution, the building became the House of Unions. And before that, in 1903, they managed to rebuild it again, Alexander Meisner worked on it. The architect added a third floor and changed the facade. Only the Column Hall remained intact.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.