MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
Read the mos.ru article for the location of the aqueduct of the first city water supply system, what ozone sorption is and how much water do the townspeople consume.
World Water Day is celebrated annually on March 22nd. This date is intended to highlight the importance of fresh water in the world. Indeed, due to the growing population of the Earth, it is becoming an increasingly valuable resource. In the capital, the first centralized water supply system was built during the reign of Catherine II, and today the needs of Muscovites for clean drinking water are provided by four water treatment plants. The most interesting facts about drinking water supply to Moscow can be found in the mos.ru article.
Fact 1. The first permanent source of water appeared in the XIV century
The Taynitskaya Tower played an important role in the defensive system of the river side of the Kremlin. It had a diversion arrow connected to it by a stone bridge, and a passage gate. In addition, a secret well was laid here and a hidden exit to the Moscow River was equipped.
The well appeared thanks to Prince Ivan Kalita. In 1339 he decided to build a fortress. By his order, an oak Kremlin with several towers was built. In order for the city to withstand the invasion of the enemy, it was necessary to provide access to drinking water. As a result, where the Taynitskaya Tower of the modern Moscow Kremlin now stands, the first water supply system was equipped. The craftsmen dug trenches from the Moskva River and laid oak pipes so that underground water would flow into a prepared well.
In 1930-1933, the arrow was dismantled, the gate was laid, and the well was filled up.
Fact 2. The first centralized water supply system in Moscow began to be built under Catherine II
In the 18th century, Empress Catherine II raised the issue of the need to build a centralized water supply system in Moscow. Engineers developed a project according to which water from Mytishchi was delivered by gravity. It was planned that thanks to this system, the city will be supplied with 300 thousand buckets (one bucket – 12.3 liters) of drinking water per day.
The Mytishchi water supply system started working in 1804, water from the springs was supplied to the city through a brick gallery. However, Moscow did not receive the declared volume of water: most of it was lost along the way due to design imperfections. In the 19th century, the water supply system had to be reconstructed several times.
Despite the difficulties, the Mytishchi water pipeline supplied the city with drinking water for a century and a half. In the modern capital, part of a unique structure, the Rostokinsky aqueduct, has been preserved. And one of the first water reservoirs in Moscow was the Sukharev Tower.
It was only in the middle of the 19th century that water was supplied to houses and fire wells were built.
Fact 3. They began to take water from the river only at the beginning of the XX century
As the number of industrial enterprises grew, the city needed more water. Then it was decided to take her from the Moscow River.
The place of water intake was determined in the area of the village of Rublevo. This was not done by chance: there were no large enterprises located along the river. The laying of the station took place on July 15, 1901, and already in 1903 it began work. Before the construction of the Moscow Canal, the Rublevskaya station was the largest water intake in the Moscow water supply system.
In the 1930s, the city began to lack water from the Moskva River, and the construction of the Moscow-Volga Canal (today the Moscow Canal) began. Simultaneously with the opening of the canal in 1937, the Eastern water treatment station was put into operation. In 1952, the Northern Water Treatment Station was launched. In 1964, the last, Western station, was opened.
Fact 4. There are four water treatment plants in Moscow
Drinking water in Moscow is purified at four water treatment stations. Water from the Moskva River is supplied to the city of Rublevskaya and Western stations, from the Volga – to the Eastern and Severnaya.
Water flows within the city, if necessary, can be transferred from one station to another. In other words, if a malfunction occurs at one facility or harmful impurities are found in the water, water from another station will be supplied to the capital’s buildings. So consumers won’t even notice.
The catchment for the capital takes place on the territory of three regions – Moscow, Tver and Smolensk. The reservoir stock is so large that the capital will not face a water shortage in the coming years.
Fact 5. Water is purified in several stages
Before entering the taps, river water goes through several stages of purification. First, it is cleaned of suspended matter using coagulants. Then it is passed through filters consisting of quartz sand and drainage. Water from the Moskva River is additionally treated with ozone and passed through carbon filters.
Ozone sorption is one of the modern filtration technologies that not only purifies water, but also preserves its useful qualities, and also helps to get rid of the specific smell from the Moskva River. Ozone is a stronger oxidizing agent than chlorine. Once in the air, it oxidizes all suspended solids that need to be removed from the water. Thanks to the ozone sorption method, the taste and color of the water improves, as well as the smell disappears.
Fact 6. Tap water can be drunk
The quality of drinking water in Moscow is increasing from year to year. You can guarantee: tap water is safe.
Today, sodium hypochlorite is used to clean it. The compound is added to the water to prevent secondary contamination by bacteria or microorganisms on its way to the consumer. This substance is absolutely safe for humans.
Experts strictly monitor the quality of drinking water. In 2020 alone, more than 2.5 million water quality analyzes were carried out in Moscow. More than 890 thousand samples were taken by the water quality control center. Regular production control was carried out on 120 physical and chemical, 12 microbiological and four hydrobiological indicators. Most of the research was carried out at water treatment plants – 1.2 million analyzes.
More than 500 devices are in continuous operation at water treatment facilities, which monitor the main indicators of water quality at different stages.
Fact 7. The volume of water consumption in the capital is decreasing from year to year
Despite the population growth, the volume of water consumption in the city is gradually decreasing. This is due to the modernization of old industrial production facilities and the fact that plumbing systems are becoming more modern and of better quality, which means that losses on the way to the consumer are decreasing.
Muscovites consume about 2.85 million cubic meters water per day. Last year, during a pandemic and a decline in economic activity, water consumption in the capital fell by about 15 percent compared to normal levels.
Another important factor is the desire of people to treat natural resources with care and conserve them. Counters have played a role, as has the use of modern dishwashers and washing machines that use less water.
Educational projects are also being implemented in Moscow. For example, on the reverse side of a single payment document, they began to place a special QR codethat leads to an interactive presentation. From it, using augmented reality technologies, you can learn about the stages of purification of tap water and how to use it carefully.
Fact 8. There is a Water Museum in the capital
The first information and environmental center in Russia “Museum of Water” opened in 1993. It was founded by JSC Mosvodokanal. The museum itself is located on the territory of the former Main Sewage Pumping Station, built in 1898. Here they educate about water conservation, respect for water resources and the formation of environmental culture in general.
In the museum, you can learn about the history of the first Kremlin water pipelines, about the periods of the formation of centralized water supply and sewerage systems in the city – from the Rostokinsky aqueduct to modern facilities: membrane filtration units for drinking water, ultraviolet disinfection units and primary sedimentation tanks with a system for removing odors at treatment facilities.
The Museum of Water also conducts excursions, including “Water supply and sewerage of Moscow”, “Water in your city” and “The second life of water”. To participate, you need to register in advance. The entrance to the museum is free.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.