MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
More than 75 years have passed since the end of the bloodiest war in the history of mankind, but, despite the respectful period, the memory of it remains unforgettable for millions of descendants of heroes who fought for the freedom and independence of our Motherland.
The feat of soldiers, home front workers and civilians is immortalized in numerous memorials on the territory of Russia and neighboring countries. You can visit each of them, lay flowers and remember the fallen heroes.
On the eve of the 76th anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War, the Russian Defense Ministry launches a multimedia project “Memory is stronger than granite”dedicated to the historical significance of memorials to the soldiers of the Red Army on the territory of Russia, neighboring countries and European countries.
Among the documents presented were combat reports, orders, award sheets, servicemen’s registration cards, reports, photographs and diagrams that were previously unknown to a wide audience.
The first issue of the project is dedicated to memorials on the territory of our country: the memorial cemetery in the city of Pskov, the Alley of Glory of the heroes-aviators of the Northern Fleet in the village of Safronovo in the Murmansk region, the monument to the soldiers of the North Sea in the village of Linahamari in the Pechenga district of the Murmansk region, a memorial in the village of Myasnoy Bor of the Novgorod region “Mound of Glory” near the village of Villagora and the monument “Grieving Mother” in the village of Khelyulya, Sortavala region in Karelia, the memorial “Nevsky Pyatachok”, the legendary submarine “Shch-317”, which sank at the bottom of the Gulf of Finland between the islands of Gogland and Bolshoi Tyuters.
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The section is opened by the city of military glory, Pskov, where a memorial cemetery is located, where 600 Soviet soldiers who died in battles with the Nazi invaders during the liberation of the city in July 1944 are buried.
As recorded in the declassified document, at the end of July 1944, the soldiers of the 128th Infantry Division were tasked with crossing the river. Great, which was a natural barrier on the approaches to the Nazi-occupied Pskov. The fighters of the 5th company of the 374th rifle regiment under the command of senior lieutenant Ivan Golovko were the first to approach the river.
The political report of the headquarters of the 128th Infantry Division dated July 30, 1944, also published in a new section, describes the facts of the heroism of the unit’s soldiers during the crossing of the river and the liberation of Pskov. It mentions the 5th Rifle Company, which “… crossed the river on the move and secured a bridgehead on its western bank.”
Senior Lieutenant Ivan Golovko was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for the battles during the liberation of Pskov. In the award list, the regiment commander noted the courage and skillful management of the unit of the company commander Golovko when overcoming the river under enemy fire. The actions of the company determined the success of the crossing of the river with the main forces and the complete liberation of Pskov. Senior Lieutenant Golovko was wounded at the time of the crossing, but did not leave his unit. When landing on the western bank occupied by the Nazis, the first group of five people under his command took a battle with 20 Nazis and was able to repel the enemy’s counterattack, and then, consolidating on the bridgehead, destroyed up to 15 firing points.
In the divisional newspaper “Stalinist Warrior”, with the materials of which Internet users can also familiarize themselves in a new section on the website of the Russian Ministry of Defense, in the days of July 1944, articles were published about the liberation of the ancient Russian cities of Ostrov and Pskov. In the July 24 issue, there was an article entitled “They advanced skillfully and victoriously,” which described the hostilities with the participation of Golovko’s company.
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In the village of Safronovo, Murmansk region, there is the Alley of Glory of the heroes-aviators of the Northern Fleet, on its stone steps the words are carved to the descendants: “Follow their footsteps. Imitate their fearlessness, their heroism. “
As mentioned in the historical document, in 1966 the Military Council of Aviation of the Northern Fleet decided to start building a monument to the pilots of the North Sea. The production of the work was entrusted to the military units, and the acquisition of scarce materials, the execution of finishing and highly artistic works were to be carried out at the expense of donations from the personnel. The Alley of Heroes was inaugurated on August 17, 1969.
For the exemplary fulfillment of the assignment, the sailors, sergeants and officers who took part in the construction and decoration of the memorial were awarded with gratitude, diplomas, cash bonuses, valuable gifts and extraordinary home leave. For eight months, the amateur sculptor Captain Ernest Kitaychuk and craftsmen have created 53 sculptural portraits of naval hero pilots who fought in the skies of the Arctic Circle during the Great Patriotic War. The 54th was the bust of the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, who began his military service in the aviation of the Northern Fleet.
The new section on the Internet portal of the military department also contains photographs and combat characteristics of the heroes immortalized on the Walk of Fame of the heroes-aviators of the Northern Fleet in Severomorsk.
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Another monument to the soldiers of the North Sea is erected in the village of Linahamari in the Pechenga district of the Murmansk region. The monument was erected on the common grave of 99 defenders of the Soviet Arctic, who died in the battles for the liberation of Liinakhamari in October 1944.
As evidenced by archival documents, on October 7, 1944, the Petsamo-Kirkenes offensive operation of the Karelian Front and the Northern Fleet began. From the side of the Northern Fleet, units and formations of the Northern Defense Region were involved, as well as the 5th Mine Torpedo Aviation Division and the Marines.
In the rear of the enemy in Liinakhamari, a combined airborne detachment was landed under the command of Major Ivan Timofeev. Boats and “small hunters” with a landing party went to the rear of the enemy through the “corridor of death” – Petsam Bay. For two days, the detachment confronted superior enemy forces until the main forces approached.
During the planning of the assault on the port of Liinakhamari and the landing of the assault force, the command immediately identified Lieutenant Commander Alexander Shabalin to carry out this task. On two torpedo boats on the night of October 12-13, he was the first to enter the port occupied by the enemy and disembark the first landing group that captured the bridgehead. Continuous fire from many batteries of various calibers, mortars dug at the berths of tanks, did not prevent Shabalin from breaking into the port at dawn again and disembarking over 2 thousand paratroopers. His bold actions largely determined the success of the general assault on Petsamo.
In the landing operation to capture Liinakhamari, the Guard Captain 3rd Rank Sergei Zyuzin commanded a group of six “small hunters” and eight torpedo boats on which the landing party was delivered to the port. For more than two hours the ships remained in his harbor, suppressing enemy fire and supporting the landing of the paratroopers. Dozens of holes were received by the lead boat, on which Zyuzin was, and the mine that exploded over the bridge just by a lucky chance did not injure him.
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On May 6, 2016 in Karelia at the place where in the fall of 1941 the Red Army units fought fierce battles with the Finnish invaders, a memorial sign “Height 168.5” was unveiled.
In September 1941, the defense line of Petrozavodsk passed in the area of Syamozero, the village of Krasnaya Pryazha and its environs, where the enemy was opposed by units of the 313rd Infantry Division, which was part of the 7th Army of the Karelian Front.
The mention of height 168.5 is found in the combat documents of these military formations posted on the website of the Russian Ministry of Defense. For almost the entire September 1941, in this place, the fighters and commanders of the 1068th and 1070th rifle regiments of the 313rd rifle division held back the offensive of the 11th Finnish infantry division, subject to tank attacks, massive mortar and artillery shelling. The command set before the division the task of preventing the enemy from entering Petrozavodsk.
As described in historical documents, while fulfilling the assigned task, units of the 313rd Infantry Division suffered heavy losses in September 1941. Even being cut off from the main forces, the fighters continued to resist and damage the enemy. As a result of fierce fighting, more than 1,000 servicemen of the 313rd division were wounded, killed or missing. As of September 13, the losses of the 1068th rifle regiment amounted to 1000 people, in the 1070th rifle regiment there were 173 wounded and killed.
On September 27, 1941, the command of the 7th separate army ordered units of the 313rd rifle division to occupy and firmly defend new positions on the approaches to Petrozavodsk.
The line of defense “Height 168.5” was discovered by search engines in 2011. During this time, several hundred remains of the Red Army were raised, who were buried with military honors at the “Mound of Glory” near the village of Villagora. The heroism of the soldiers of the 313rd Infantry Division was awarded government awards. Internet users can also learn more about the exploits and combat path of some of the Red Army soldiers who defended the height of 168.5 in the new Internet section on the website of the military department.
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In the Novgorod region, in the village of Myasnoy Bor, at the site of the breakthrough by the troops of the 2nd shock, 52nd and 59th armies of the Volkhov front of the defense of the German troops in January-June 1942, a military burial is located from a number of common and single graves, in which more than 37 are buried thousand people. During the Great Patriotic War, this area was called the “Valley of Death”.
In January 1942, as historical documents testify, the command of the Volkhov Front planned to cut the Nazi group that had blockaded Leningrad in the area of the settlement of Spasskaya Polist in order to deprive it of its maneuverability on the only highway Chudovo-Novgorod.
The battles with the participation of the 1244th rifle regiment of the 374th rifle division in the area of the settlements of Bolshaya and Malaya Kerest were fierce, but the regiment’s fighters managed to seize the railway bridge and gain a foothold on the railroad. Having overcome the frozen, but heavily shelled unnamed river, the regiment captured the villages. Further, the soldiers literally gnawed into the enemy’s defenses in the direction of Spasskaya Polist, which the Nazis made a strongly fortified stronghold.
On January 27, the Nazis managed to encircle the regiment. For four days, the fighters beat off enemy attacks and only on January 31, with the help from outside, they managed to make a narrow gap in the German defense, get the missing ammunition, food and get out of the encirclement.
In the spring of 1942, units of the 2nd shock, 52nd and 59th armies were opposed by the SS police division, which consisted exclusively of Germans. The captured Nazis reported that their division suffered exceptional losses in the battles on the Volkhov front near Myasny Bor.
Feldwebel Funk wrote: “Now I am already in a different company, since my former company has been destroyed.” Lance corporal Kofman confessed to his wife: “The losses are so great that it is hardly possible to consider us combat-ready now.” After being in France, where the Nazis led a riotous lifestyle, the conditions in which they found themselves among the Volkhov swamps and forests caused them great dissatisfaction, and losses and hardships led to a sharp drop in the morale of the police division.
The second time the 1244th Rifle Regiment was surrounded in June 1942 and repelled enemy attacks for 20 days. On June 19, the Nazis threw tanks at the regiment’s units. As a result, 39 of them were blown up by mines, 12 were knocked out by the regiment’s artillerymen.
At the end of June 1942, the regiment command received an order to leave the encirclement. They went out in separate groups along a narrow passage, which was fired upon by mortars and large-caliber artillery of the enemy. A separate group of fighters was instructed to bring out the secret documents and the banner of the unit.
As it is written in the historical document, junior sergeant Ivan Kotov at night, hiding the banner under his tunic, short dashes along the narrow-gauge railway under the hurricane fire of enemy artillery, running from crater to crater, overcoming hundreds of meters, saved a gift from the students of the Zaozersk school of the sponsored unit. Soon, 53 more fighters emerged from the encirclement. This was the entire personnel of the regiment.
In the book of honor of the 382nd Rifle Division there is a page dedicated to sniper Ivan Kotov, who was awarded the Order of the Red Star for removing the regimental banner from the encirclement. The corresponding page has also been published in a new section on the website of the military department.
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Memorial “Nevsky Piglet” is dedicated to the feat of the servicemen of the Leningrad Front, who during the period from 1941 to 1943 held the defense on a bridgehead with a length of 2 to 4 km and a depth of 800 meters. This small area was important during the battles for Leningrad.
In September 1941, the command of the 115th Infantry Division was entrusted with the task of defending the northern bank of the Neva River, special attention should be paid to the Malye Porogi – Nevskaya Dubrovka section and to prevent the enemy from crossing the river.
The brochure “The Combat Path of a Division”, also posted on the website of the military department, reflects the events of the autumn days of 1941, when the battles for Nevskaya Dubrovka were fought. During the crossing of units of the 115th Infantry Division, enemy aircraft bombed the area for several hours in a row, tanks, infantry and artillery were involved.
The battles on the Nevsky patch in September were fierce. The historical form of the 86th Rifle Division, which also fought on the Nevsky Pyatachka, says: “… conducting continuous offensive battles for 20 days, the division, in an extremely limited front, open area, suffered heavy losses in personnel and materiel.”
The chief of staff of the 330th Rifle Regiment, Major Sokolov, reported about the hostilities on the left bank of the Neva from 23 to 27 April 1942, who was able to swim across the river. The contact with the enemy was so close that the battles for each point were mostly grenade: “… after the Nazis attack from the edge, it was noticed that … 50-60 meters from the command post he was moving along the coast to the enemy company. Approaching each dugout, they shouted: “Russians, surrender.” In response, grenades fell from the dugouts … The Germans either threw the captured wounded Red Army soldiers into the river or sent those who could walk to the area of the hydroelectric power station. The wounded Red Army men stubbornly resisted … “.
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In the Karelian village of Khelyulya, Sortavala region, a monument “Grieving mother” is erected. This is the mass grave of 366 Soviet soldiers who died during the Great Patriotic War. Most of them died during the 45-day defense of Sortavala in the summer of 1941. In those days, soldiers of the 168th and 71st rifle divisions, together with border guards, fought against superior enemy forces, hindering their advance in the Petrozavodsk direction.
The conditions under which the 168th Infantry Division fought in the Sortavala region in the summer of 1941 is described in detail in the unit’s political reports. The military commissar of the division wrote on July 17: “… the 260th rifle regiment was defeated. The last reserves were thrown into battle: sappers, orderlies, warriors of the city of Sortavala. Women mobilized … to work in the medical battalion. … The routes for the supply of ammunition and the evacuation of the wounded are cut off … “.
The 168th Infantry Division was commanded by Colonel A.L. Bondarev. The certification of July 31, 1941 reads: “… He skillfully organized the defense of the division at the front of the army, the division took the main blow of the Finno-German troops … Comrade Bondarev personally checked and organized the defense of each regiment, battalion, skillfully and energetically helped neighboring parts … “. In August, when the unit was in a semi-encirclement, the enemy more than once announced on the radio about the complete destruction of the “Bondarevskaya” division.
In Karelia, units of the Red Army mainly fought with the Finnish invaders, who in the first days of the undeclared war rather easily covered kilometers of the territory of the Soviet Union.
In a letter to his mother, a Finnish soldier who fought in the sector of the 168th Infantry Division wrote: “… our advance was like a child’s concern, there the Russians fled from our artillery fire. From there we were transferred by car back to the north of Sortavala, since there was a large encirclement of the enemy. Here I could already feel a real war. These Russians are showing equal resistance – it must be admitted. For every meter they fight like the damned and in the end they kill themselves with explosives, but they don’t surrender … ”.
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At the bottom of the Gulf of Finland between the islands of Gogland and Bolshoi Tyuters is the submarine “Shch-317” sunk during the Great Patriotic War. Every year, sailors of the Baltic Fleet pay tribute to the memory of the fallen submariners by laying flowers and saluting the heroes.
On June 9, 1942, the Shch-317 submarine left Kronstadt with the task of destroying enemy transport and military ships. Together with the crew, the commander of the fourth division of submarines, Captain 2nd Rank Yegorov, was on the submarine.
The last message from the submarine commander, Lieutenant-Commander Mokhov, was received on June 16. More reports to the headquarters of the Baltic Fleet from the “Shch-317” did not arrive. According to the calculations of the command, on June 20, the submarine was supposed to arrive in the area of the given position.
At the same time, reports appeared in the Western press about the sinking of Danish and Swedish transport ships in the area of operation of “Shch-317”.
Later, information appeared that the submarine had destroyed five enemy transports with a total displacement of 46 thousand tons, as well as that it had no torpedoes. On July 26, 1942, the submarine’s autonomy expired, but it did not return to the base.
More details with documents about the sinking of the Shch-317 submarine and its heroic crew can also be found in archival documents in a new section on the website of the military department.
The publication of declassified documents about from the funds of the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense of Russia is a continuation of the activities of the military department aimed at protecting and protecting historical truth, countering falsifications of history, attempts to revise the results of the Great Patriotic War and World War II.
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EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and / or sentence structure not be perfect.