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The archaeological season will last until early October. At this time, excavations, observations, research are carried out. In the new season, field work is planned at more than 800 sites. Most of them are located outside the city center.

A new archaeological season begins in Moscow. This was announced by the head Department of cultural heritage of the city of Moscow Alexey Emelyanov… In 2021, specialists will conduct field work at more than 800 sites. Two thirds of them are located on the territory of the Troitsky and Novomoskovsky administrative areas.

“For five months of 2021, the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation has already issued 21 open sheets for archaeological field work in Moscow. This is the beginning that promises us a fruitful season. For comparison, only 35 such documents were issued for the whole of 2020. Without them, it is impossible to carry out archaeological excavations on the territory of Moscow. Last year, about 15 thousand artifacts were found in the capital. In the new archaeological season, we are counting on an equal number of finds, ”commented Aleksey Yemelyanov.

The archaeological season runs from early June to early October. At this time, excavations, observations, research are carried out. Excavation refers to stationary archaeological work. They, for example, are carried out before the start of construction. And the timing depends on the volume and the covered area. Archaeological observations are carried out in parallel with construction work.

To carry out excavations and any kind of excavation work, archaeologists need an archaeological sheet – this is a special permit. Such sheets are issued for the conduct of the activities of specialists in certain zones or districts, settlements, places with the status of a monument.

Where archaeologists will search for treasures of the past

The most significant sites are located on the territory of the Orphanage in Kitaygorodsky passage. Archaeologists suggest that it is possible to obtain new scientific data on the period of the initial development of the coastal territory in the historical center of Moscow. Collections of archaeological finds of a wide chronological range can be formed – from the 16th to the 19th century.

Research is planned on the territory of the Novodevichy Convent, at the intersection of Sretenka Street and Pushkarev Lane. Based on the analysis of historical and archaeological sources, areas have been identified where both cultural layers of the 17th – 19th centuries and the remains of historical buildings could have survived. Experts expect to find elements of urban landscaping from different centuries.

“Two thirds of the sites are located in New Moscow. It is planned to continue archaeological field work on the territory of the Izmalkovo historical estate, which is located in the Vnukovsky settlement. Earlier, archaeologists investigated elements of garden and park structures and systems that appeared there in the late 18th – early 19th centuries, and also discovered individual items of the late 17th – early 20th centuries that belonged to local residents, ”the head of the department noted.

He added that work is also planned in the places of the historical settlements of Kuzovlevo, Ryzhovo and Zabolot’e in the TyNAO.

Restore and transfer to the museum

The year-round work of archaeologists will also continue – the description and restoration of the finds already discovered, as well as their transfer to the museum funds. The working process in the workshops is divided into two stages: cameral processing, when the artifact is cleared of soil, and the restoration itself. Restoration work can take from a week to several years. It all depends on the find and its condition.

“We process about 10 thousand finds annually. In total, in 2020, more than 700 archaeological items were transferred to the state part of the Museum Fund of the Russian Federation, these are 16 archaeological collections. Now archaeologists are also not slowing down the pace of restoration of finds. Since the beginning of the year, more than 500 items found earlier have been put in order. An excellent example of restored values ​​is a complex of artifacts found at the end of last year during archaeological research during excavation work near the Paveletsky railway station, ”said Aleksey Yemelyanov.

Experts managed to identify and record interesting materials that speak about the history of the development of this area and the life of the townspeople in different centuries. The works were carried out in winter, which happens in exceptional cases. They were organized in full accordance with the generally accepted archaeological method: in order to ensure that in winter conditions it was possible to fully fix all the objects to be opened, each section was covered with a protective canopy with round-the-clock lighting and heating.

“The finds on Paveletskaya show the history of the development of this place over the course of several centuries. The main discovery was the treasure of Russian copper coins of the late 15th – 16th centuries. The treasure was found in a small hole. At the time of its discovery, it was a compact accumulation of coins, and no container, for example a vessel, was found. Apparently, initially the coins were in a wallet or bundle of organic material, which has completely decayed by our time. In total, the complex included 88 copper coins – a pool of Moscow and Tver minting, ”said the head of the Moscow City Heritage Site.

He said that the owner of the found treasure was a poor man. With this money, you could buy groceries for one week. Almost all the coins ended up with traces of a long stay in money circulation: during the restoration process, it turned out that many of them were completely erased.

The pool (pula, pula) was the smallest denomination of the Russian monetary system, and its face value was scanty: at different times, one silver kopeck accounted for from 16 to 64 pools. Therefore, on the one hand, these single coins are often found: they were lost and they did not try very hard to look for them. On the other hand, such coins are almost never found in hoards: the townspeople tried to hide money of a larger denomination. And today the pool treasure, discovered opposite the Paveletsky railway station, is the first find of this kind in the history of Moscow archeology, made in the course of stationary archaeological research.

In addition, archaeologists have found coins from the period of the reign of different sovereigns: Elizabeth Petrovna, Catherine II, Paul I, Nicholas I, Nicholas II, as well as a series of Soviet coins of the pre-war period.

“In addition to the treasure, archaeologists have discovered a whole collection of tableware. It can be conditionally divided into two parts: imported items and items imitating the Eastern and Western traditions. The first group included a German beer mug, a bowl with a clock from England and a porcelain plate rim from Western Europe. And in the second – the throat of a glass damask with imitation of the English mark, a Turkish-style smoking pipe, a porcelain plate from the Khrapunov-Novago factory imitating Western European painting, as well as a plate from the Zhadin factory, the brand of which is written in Latin letters in a Western manner, ”said Aleksey Yemelyanov.

Interesting finds were two toys: a tin rider with a saber on a horse at the end of the 19th – first half of the 20th century and a decorative ceramic figurine of the late 19th – early 20th centuries depicting a peasant girl.

The entire collection of finds has already been restored, and will soon be transferred to one of the museums in Moscow.

Photos provided by the press service of the Department of Cultural Heritage of the city of Moscow

EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.

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