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Why coolness is not always a salvation, what to eat and drink in the heat, when to play sports and how to behave if it becomes bad. The metropolitan doctor talks about how to survive the heat without harm to health.

Moscow summer this week breaks temperature records… In a 30-degree heat, you want to spend time in nature, near the water, but the working pace in the capital does not decrease. Andrey Tyazhelnikov, chief freelance specialist in primary health care for adults, told how to work safely in extremely high temperatures and have proper rest without harming your health. Moscow Department of Health.

Dangerous for everyone

Heat is, first of all, stress for the body, which is trying to adapt to unusual conditions, working to the limit and spending more resources on it.

QUOTE “First of all, people with chronic diseases, people with weakened immunity after acute illnesses or during a period of illness are at risk in the heat. But in general, any person can be at risk if he does not observe precautions during prolonged exposure to heat. Overheating can cause heatstroke and dehydration, ”says Andrey Tyazhelnikov.

You need to be especially attentive to the elderly, as they often have chronic diseases, as well as to children – babies do not feel danger, being in the sun for a long time.

Here are some simple tips for everyone to make it easier to stay in the heat:

– if possible, you should take a cool shower (not ice) as often as possible;

– on the street you need to wear a hat, preferably with wide brims or with a visor, and wear loose, light-colored clothing made from natural fabrics;

– leaving the house, you need to take water and medicines with you, which may be needed to stop the exacerbation of a chronic disease;

– closely monitor children so that they do not stay in the open sun for a long time.

Drink more, but not soda and coffee

The most obvious tip for hot weather is to drink more. But you need to do it right. In the heat, moisture leaves the body very quickly due to sweating, which negatively affects the water-salt balance, so you need to drink more than usual.

“You don’t need to drink a lot of water at once so as not to put a lot of stress on the kidneys. It is better to drink several sips more often. In addition, people of different ages, weight, leading an active or passive lifestyle, need a different amount of fluid. Usually it is recommended to proceed from the average requirement – 30-40 milliliters per kilogram of weight. Do not forget that a significant part of the necessary liquid is contained in the products we consume, ”emphasizes Andrey Tyazhelnikov.

It is best to drink plain water, the doctor is sure, and cool, not ice cold. This will help avoid sudden hypothermia, which will weaken the local immunity.

But it is better to refuse from sugary and carbonated drinks. They put large portions of sugar in them, and this increases the risk of developing diseases. Some sodas also contain caffeine, which can contribute to dehydration. Therefore, you should not overuse coffee either.

And freshening up with an alcoholic drink in the heat is a bad idea that can end up in hospitalization.

“Alcohol disrupts thermoregulation, puts stress on the cardiovascular system and promotes the elimination of fluid from the body. Drinking alcohol in the hot open sun can lead to serious complications, ”says Andrey Tyazhelnikov.

How to work in the heat

Work in the heat does not stop. But this weather affects the work process.

“If it is possible to regulate employment, then you should avoid engaging in active physical labor in the hottest hours. Try to transfer this load to the evening. In the office, keep an eye on the air temperature, drink more clean water, wear loose, light clothing, ”advises Andrey Tyazhelnikov.

Coolness is not always a salvation

You should beware of a sharp temperature drop when you enter the room from the street. In shops and malls, air conditioners often cool the air very much. Therefore, it is worth putting on something so that a sudden hypothermia does not happen.

In the office or at home, Andrey Tyazhelnikov advises setting the air conditioner at 20-25 degrees and maintaining this temperature.

“The air conditioner is not dangerous if used correctly. With it, you can comfortably survive the summer heat. If it is adjusted to a temperature acceptable for health, then it will effectively maintain a given temperature regime even at night. The main thing is not to be in a direct blowing zone, under a stream of air, ”says the doctor.

At the same time, the presence of an air conditioner does not negate the importance of ventilation.

How to relax in the heat

In warm weather, many go for picnics. When shopping for recreational products, keep in mind that heavy foods are not the best choice for the heat. Better to give preference to cold soups, salads, vegetables and fruits.

You also need to be careful when sunbathing. You can sunbathe in the open sun only until 11:00 and after 17:00 no more than 20 minutes. The rest of the time it is better to be in the shade. Be sure to wear sunscreen and wide-brimmed hats.

Andrey Tyazhelnikov pays special attention to the rules for swimming in reservoirs.

“The first rule: after physical exertion, you need to rest. The second rule: you need to give the body time to adapt to cold water. In no case do not jump into the water with a running start, do not dive right away with your head! It is necessary to immerse yourself in water gradually, getting used to the temperature. It is advisable to wipe yourself off with a wet towel or scoop up water and pour over yourself. For the first time, go into the water for a short time; two minutes are enough to start. And in the next visits, you can gradually increase the time, ”the doctor advises.

With a sharp temperature drop, vasospasm or a jump in blood pressure may occur. This can lead to unconsciousness, which is especially dangerous in water. Also, with a sharp cooling in water, reflex muscle contraction occurs, which can lead to convulsions and respiratory arrest.

Dangerous in the heat and active sports. It is worth going to the sports ground or treadmill only in the morning or evening hours and be sure to drink water.

What to do if it gets bad

Sunstroke can occur with prolonged exposure to the sun. And in a stuffy room, where there is no sun, a heat stroke threatens.

“It is necessary to be wary and take action if there is a headache and dizziness, a feeling of fever, fatigue, weakness, depression, redness of the skin of the body, shortness of breath, cold sweat. People are often worried about nausea, ”says Andrey Tyazhelnikov.

If you experience such symptoms, you need to cool down urgently: find a shade, get out of a stuffy room, drink cool water, wipe your face with water or wash, moisten a cloth and make a compress for your head. If possible, take a cool shower and lie down. If it does not feel better, you should see a doctor.

Heat, temperature changes, drafts, ice drinks – all this weakens the immune system and makes a person more vulnerable to viruses, including COVID-19. Andrey Tyazhelnikov advises not to forget about the danger of coronavirus – to choose less crowded places for recreation, maintain social distance, and also get vaccinated.

EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.

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