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Running on “three legs”. Outdoor games for children. 1910s. Main Archive of Moscow

What the metropolitan teachers of the beginning of the 20th century paid attention to, you can find out from archival documents.

IN Main Archive of Moscowthere are many materials that tell about how children were raised, brought up and taught over several centuries. Preserved here are documents about the leisure of young Muscovites.

The term “kindergarten” itself, which has become extremely popular in Russia, was coined in the first third of the 19th century by the German doctor and educator-innovator Friedrich Frebel, the author of the system of early childhood education.

During the 19th century, day kindergartens were opened in St. Petersburg, Moscow and other cities, mainly for low-income strata of the population. They were organized at gymnasiums, parishes of churches, industrial enterprises and private houses. Among the initiators of the creation of kindergartens were the preschool education methodologist Elizaveta Zalesskaya, the teacher and preschool educator Maria Sventitskaya, the teachers Olga Kelina and Louise Schleger, the deaf teacher Natalia Rau and many others.

The Moscow City Duma attached great importance to the development of education in Moscow and advocated universal education in the city. So, in 1911, the report of the Executive Commission on the organization of colonies (the word “colony” was used as a place of study, recreation and leisure for children), presented to the Moscow City Council, reflected the process of creating the first kindergarten in the capital.

In the Glavarchiv there is a report “On the organization at the Syromyatnichesky 3rd men’s primary school of the first kindergarten for children with poor health, students in city schools.” By that time, there was already a school children’s club at the educational institution with donations. Children were engaged in drawing, modeling, sawing, burning, photography, shoemaking, carpentry and bookbinding. In addition, here the guys read, played, skated, sang, danced, they were taught gymnastics, music and recitation. The head of the summer kindergarten was one of the initiators of its creation, Sergey Zenchenko, a doctor at the Syromyatnichesky 3rd male school and an assistant in the city government.

This outdoor kindergarten among peers served as a favorable environment for a weakened child. The summer garden was created for boys and girls and was designed for 50-60 people. From 08:00 to 20:00 children with three teachers were engaged in gardening, horticulture, and played. Meals were also provided: breakfast, lunch and tea with milk.

The idea of ​​creating a summer kindergarten in Moscow was supported by private benefactors, well-known specialists in the field of medicine and pedagogy. One of these people was professor of medicine Mikhail Bogdanov-Berezovsky, otolaryngologist and defectologist, who devoted his clinical and pedagogical research to the treatment and organization of training for people with hearing impairments. He combined treatment and classes on the development of the cognitive abilities of children, achieved great efficiency in this and refuted the opinion prevailing in the 19th century about the uselessness of teaching the deaf and dumb.

The experience and discoveries of ascetic teachers were used throughout the 20th century, undoubtedly, and now they play their important role.

EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.

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