MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
Read the mos.ru article about how a cockroach helped to improve the crawl, where the roll has a handle, why a bun is called a bun, and much more.
Perhaps the most famous producer of bread and rolls in Moscow was the merchant of the second guild, Ivan Filippov. Continuing his father’s work, Filippov brought him to a new level, successfully competed with German bakers, supplied products to the imperial court every day and became the hero of good historical anecdotes.
Saika with a cockroach and a roll with a handle
Muscovites of the 19th century – great lovers of tea drinking – were especially honored with cakes. Soft, oblong-shaped pastries, generously stuffed with raisins, were sure to be served when the samovar was boiling. However, initially there was no raisins in the cakes – it came to Filippov’s mind to add it to the dough almost by accident. And by no means for reasons of improving the taste of products. Vladimir Gilyarovsky tells about this case in Moscow and Muscovites – Filippov’s amazing personality and his business acumen are given a lot of attention in the chapter “Bakers and Hairdressers”.
Ivan Maksimovich supplied pastries for breakfast to the then Governor-General of Moscow Arseny Zakrevsky. One day he, having bitten off a piece of sausage, to his horror, noticed a cockroach inside. In anger, he summoned the baker and demanded an explanation. Filippov, instantly assessing the scale of the disaster, reported: “This is a highlight, sir.” And in order to confirm his words and hide the traces of the crime, he quickly ate the sausage along with the cockroach. Coming out of Zakrevsky, he rushed to his bakery, where, despite the protests of the bakers, he dumped a whole sieve of raisins into the sachet dough. The next day, there was no end to those who wanted to buy a raisin sackcloth.
But the case of the cockroach was spread with an anecdote, which was also mentioned by some famous writers. For example, Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin in his Modern Idyll:
– Kalach from Filippov? – I asked. – Yes, from Filippov. – They say he has a lot of cockroaches in his bakery … – You never know what they say! Delicious – well, it will be with you!
Filippov’s bakery was famous not only for cakes with raisins, but also for rolls. Ivan Maksimovich came up with the idea of making a roll with a handle – that is, with a thin strip of dough connected to the main part, which was called a lip or tummy. It was very convenient: I ate the roll on the go, and threw away the pen if my hands were dirty. This is how the expression “reach the pen” appeared – that is, become so poor that you have to save money and even eat the “inedible” part of the roll.
Kalachi, by the way, contrary to modern ideas, were not sweet – in the time of Ivan Maksimovich there were only flour, water, yeast and salt in Kalashny dough.
From father to son
Ivan Filippov got the secret of especially tasty rolls from his father. Maxim Filippov, a former serf peasant, came to Moscow from the Kaluga province at the beginning of the 19th century. Over time, having studied in other people’s bakeries, he opened his own at the corner of Myasnitskaya Street and the Boulevard Ring. Then he realized that the best rolls are obtained if the dough is kept in the cold before baking. By the time the business passed to Ivan Maksimovich, the family already owned three bakeries. The other two were on Sretenka Street and Tverskaya Street.
Like his father, Ivan Filippov paid great attention to the quality of the goods – he did not buy flour, he ground his own in mills with proven millers and from grain bought in proven places. At the same time, he did not raise prices – in his bakeries there were poor students, and officials, and rich elegant ladies, and ordinary workers. “Little black bread for a toiler’s first meal,” he often repeated.
Competition contributed a lot to the availability of his rolls, saikas and bread – Filippov had to lower prices for his excellent products. German bakeries were very popular in Moscow in the 1850s. Bread was baked there twice a day, the premises were kept in perfect cleanliness and order, and shops were set up right next to the bakeries. By the way, Filippov got the last idea from his competitors.
The case expands
Pies with rice, mushrooms, cottage cheese and other fillings did not have time to get to the counter – they were taken apart as soon as they left the ovens. And if someone doubted the timing of production, for example, a cooled loaf, they put it on the counter and crushed it. If after a few seconds he returned to form, then there was no longer any doubt – he was the freshest. If not, they sold at a reduced price.
“In good oil, with fresh minced meat, the pie-patch was so big that a couple could have a hearty breakfast. The counters and shelves on the left side of the bakery, which had a separate passage, were always surrounded by crowds who bought brown bread and sieve in pounds, ”Vladimir Gilyarovsky wrote in his book“ Moscow and Muscovites ”.
In 1855, the talented entrepreneur Filippov received the title of supplier to the court of His Imperial Majesty. According to legend, the same thing that appeared on the shelves for ordinary citizens was sent to the imperial court – there were no exceptions. Every day the rolls made a long journey from Moscow to St. Petersburg – Filippov flatly refused the idea of baking on the spot, it was impossible to repeat the taste even with the strictest adherence to the recipe. Ivan Maksimovich blamed the water from the Neva for everything. Only later, when water from Mytishchi began to be delivered to the Northern capital, a branch of the Philippov enterprise was opened there.
Ivan Filippov died in 1878, his entire household passed to his wife and children. In 1905, difficult times came for the enterprise: first there was a strike of workers demanding higher wages, and then they had to reap the fruits of downtime, it was impossible to pay off creditors. Things were getting worse, after the 1917 revolution, the company was nationalized.
Where else did they buy bread
Delicious bread and baked goods were sold in the middle of the 19th century on Red Square – in Rumyantsev’s bakery. Also known were the bakeries of Kondratyev, Torpashev, Vinogradov, Berezin, Suslov, Chuev and many others. Each had its own unique selling proposition. They went to Chuev’s bakery on Lubyanka for special cakes – here they were laid out hot on a straw mat, which gave them aroma, and on Arbat Square to Savostyanov – for the freshest buns. In the book by Ivan Svinin “Memoirs of a student of the 60s, for 1862-1865” (1890) we read:
“I still remember the time when Savostyanov’s bakery was located in one room, illuminated by small windows with simple steles of impeccable cleanliness. The frames had bindings, in which the vents were made, through which we received hot bread in the evening. Now, in everything, there is luxury, spaciousness, an abundance of light pouring its rays through gigantic mirrored glasses. At that time, the specialty of this bakery was butter baking, the so-called “buns”, yet other things, such as white bread, rolls, bagels – were the exclusive accessory of Filippov’s bakery. “
By the way, scientists have no consensus about the origin of the word “bun”. According to one version, it comes from the Old Russian word “ivy”, in turn derived from the verb “ivy”, and emphasizes the flat shape of the product. The second version is less obvious: it is possible that the buns were originally baked in the form of birds, for example, wagtail, one of the dialectal names of which is bun, plishka or plisk.
The city bakeries made excellent rye bread, generously sprinkled with anise or caraway seeds. It cost only one kopeck. There was bread and more expensive – soft on the inside, and on the outside, covered with a crispy crust, an oblong-oval French bun cost five times more.
By the beginning of the 20th century, there were more than 300 bakeries in the city. Following Filippov, many entrepreneurs began to organize stores directly in bakeries, and such establishments were especially popular: the aromas of bread and baked goods just taken out of the oven did not leave visitors indifferent, it was extremely difficult to refrain from buying. But after 1917, many of these establishments (the smallest) were closed, others were nationalized.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.