MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
This year, a major overhaul of the most prominent house on Sadovaya-Kudrinskaya Street began. This building is an object of cultural heritage, therefore, restoration work is carried out along with the repair work. We will tell you how specialists return the historical look to a unique structure.
On Sadovaya-Kudrinskaya Street there is a seven-story dark gray building with high arches and turrets on the roof. This is the so-called marshal’s house, built in 1947 for the highest command staff. The descendants of the military leaders who received apartments after the Great Patriotic War, as well as the architects who built the house, live here. In 2019, the house was completed restoration of the first floor, and this year the restoration of the entire building began.
A mos.ru correspondent visited the marshal’s house, saw how restorers were working, and talked with those who are returning the building to its historical appearance.
Preparation for restoration
Now the greatness of the marshal’s house is difficult to assess – it is completely covered with scaffolding. If you look closely, you can see decorative elements, balconies, arches and massive figures “1947”.
The house on Sadovaya-Kudrinskaya is an object of cultural heritage. Therefore, the Capital Repair Fund (FKR) is engaged not only in its comprehensive repair, but also in its restoration.
“The approaches to restoration work are always the same. It doesn’t matter who the customer is – the Moscow Department of Cultural Heritage, the Moscow Capital Repair Fund or the owner. They are regulated by federal law and the corresponding GOSTs. The difference in the case of the marshal’s house is that the FKR performs work throughout the entire house, and the work in the premises of the first floor was previously carried out by their owner in the person of the Russian Ministry of Defense. It should be noted that both of these works are carried out under the control of the Department of Cultural Heritage of Moscow, ”explains Sergey Krasnov, head of the Department for Work with Cultural Heritage Sites of the Construction Control Service of the Capital Repair Fund.
The restoration begins with measurements, taking samples of materials, laboratory tests. Also, architects study archives, photographs, drawings, descriptions of parts. All this is needed to draw up a project, the volume of which can reach 30 volumes.
The finished documentation undergoes a historical and cultural examination. Then it is placed in public space, and everyone can express their comments. If they were not received (and there was no criticism about the marshal’s house), then the project is coordinated Department of cultural heritage… If there are comments, they are checked for correctness and changes are made. Then a contractor is selected through an auction, he gets permission and starts work. The restoration is being supervised, among other things, by the supervisor who developed the project.
Modern technologies play an important role in the preparation for the restoration.
“Laser scanning of building elements is used, flying around with a copter, which takes several thousand high-quality photographs. Then a special computer program processes the images, then a digital model is built and design is carried out on the basis of it. Also applies
BIM design“, – says Sergey Krasnov.
With the approval of the tenants
An important feature of the restoration of residential buildings is discussion with residents. Sometimes they want, for example, to paint the facade or install double-glazed windows. But it is forbidden to do this on cultural heritage sites. According to Sergei Krasnov, there were no such problems with the marshal’s house.
A resident of the house, Evgenia Vorontsova, notes that no decisions were made without the approval of the residents. In addition, people shared the preserved documents with specialists.
“We provided everything that we had at the stage of project development. The tenants practically do not have old photographs of the building, because then the Garden Ring itself, streets, trees were mainly filmed. Usually no one took pictures of the house, they could have captured the entrance, ”she says.
Evgenia Vorontsova has been living in the marshal’s house for 50 years. Her great-grandfather Konstantin Smirnov, Lieutenant General of Aviation, received an apartment here. Before the move, he and three members of his family huddled in a 14-meter room in a communal apartment near the Kievsky railway station. “We have such a legend in our family that when my great-grandfather got into a new apartment for the first time, he said:“ My God, I can walk in shorts! ” But I always remember him at the parade – in ironed trousers, a shirt, with a tie and with a stick, ”says Evgenia.
Designed by three architects
The Marshal’s house stands out not only for its architecture, but also for its history – it was built by captured Germans. It is noteworthy that before the war there was another building on this site, destroyed during the Nazi bombing.
“There are not many ‘German’ houses in the center. The Marshal Building is a rare exception. There are houses built by prisoners, for example, on Alabyan Street, in the area of Oktyabrsky Field. And the houses in Krasnogorsk were also built by Japanese prisoners, ”says the guide Georgy Makeev.
The house on Sadovaya-Kudrinskaya was designed by three architects – Lev Rudnev, Vladimir Munts and Viktor Ass. They often worked together. So, all three are the authors of one of the buildings of the Ministry of Defense on the Frunzenskaya embankment.
Georgy Makeev emphasizes that houses intended for some kind of professional group were not uncommon. “For the Soviet era, houses with a homogeneous composition are generally characteristic – the house of the NKVD officers, the house of writers, and on the Patriarch’s Ponds there is a supposedly three-story mansion, but in fact there is a six-apartment building for generals.”
Preserve historical elements as much as possible
In the marshal’s house, the electrics have already been completely replaced, now other engineering communications are being put in order, and the restoration of the facade, interiors and the roof is underway.
Restorer Vladimir Brizhinsky is restoring doors, portals, railings, elevator openings, windows – everything inside the building. He shows the doors of the entrance group of one of the entrances.
“At each entrance there is an entrance group in the form of a portal. All doors are now under restoration – many details have been lost after renovations in the 1990s. For example, the brass grilles on these doors are irretrievably lost and will have to be re-cast. This is a very voluminous work, but I think that by August the portal will acquire a historical look. We preserve everything that is possible, ”the master emphasizes.
However, not everything can be saved. One of the reasons is time. So, the original window frames cannot be left. According to the restorer, they are almost 80 percent destroyed. And with the wooden railings, which are now carefully wrapped in foil, everything is in order, only small connecting elements have been lost. Vladimir evaluates the safety of the railings on a solid four.
The pride of each entrance of the marshal’s house is the mosaics on the floor. They have come down to us in good condition and are waiting for their turn for restoration.
“There are unique mosaics on the floor in the entrances. Each entrance has its own drawing – somewhere floral, somewhere a dragon. Now they are closed so that no building dust gets in, but they will also be restored, there are not many lost elements in these mosaics, ”the restorer assures.
This is painstaking work
One of the most difficult stages of restoration is the restoration of the pinnacles on the roof of the house. They are badly worn out, destroyed and are in disrepair. The sculptor-restorer Arman Simonyan is engaged in their restoration. His summer workshop is located right in the courtyard of the house on Sadovaya-Kudrinskaya. Under a green awning is a table with a colorful yellow lamp and tools. Around – models and ready-made samples.
“I am making lost items. First, a plaster model is made, then a mold, and after that there is a casting in concrete. Right now I am restoring a consolidated arched element, some parts have been lost here, ”says the sculptor.
Arman Simonyan emphasizes that the marshal’s house is unique for its concrete masonry, which resembles ceramic. It is reinforced with wire, but inside it is hollow, like tiles. This is quite rare.
The sculptor’s work is painstaking, connected with small details, therefore it takes a lot of time and attention.
The restoration and overhaul of the house on Sadovaya-Kudrinskaya is promised to be completed by the end of the year. FKR, carrying out such work, tries to fit into one warm season, so as not to create unnecessary inconvenience to residents.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.