MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
Dozens of cultural heritage sites have been preserved by the designers and architects of the organization. Read about some of them, as well as the specifics of their work, in the mos.ru article.
The restoration of the Khudozhestvenny cinema building, the return of the historical appearance to the towers of the Donskoy Monastery, the restoration of the former apartment buildings in Moscow – all this is largely the merit of the staff of the Faros architectural and restoration workshop.
The workshop appeared in Moscow in 2015. Its main area of activity is the development of design documentation for the restoration of architectural monuments, the implementation of field supervision and scientific guidance during the work to return the objects to their historical appearance.
According to him, in the process of developing a restoration project, it is necessary not only to preserve the details of the historic building, thanks to which it was included in the register of cultural heritage objects. It is important that after the completion of the work, the building as a whole does not lose its authenticity.
For six years, more than 100 restoration objects have been implemented by the workshop staff. Many of these monuments are cultural heritage sites of regional and federal significance. Some of the restored architectural masterpieces are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. These include, for example, the ensemble of the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Armory: the building with the apartments of their Imperial Highnesses and the stable building near the Kremlin wall (Kremlin, building number 9).
Another example is the restoration in 2020 of the historic building of the Khudozhestvenny cinema, one of the oldest cinemas in the capital, located at 14 Arbatskaya Square, Building 1. Russian craftsmen worked on the project together with colleagues from Spain, Germany and the UK. The works were carried out at the highest level and with the preservation of the ideas of the architect F.O. Shekhtel, but the main thing is that the specialists managed to keep “Khudozhestvenny” as a cinema.
Among other works – preparation of design documentation for the restoration of such significant Moscow objects as the city estate of clerk A.I. Ivanov – Levashovykh (Starovagankovsky lane, 15, building 3), Sheremetyevskoe courtyard (Nikolskaya street, 10), warehouses of the Vodka Distillery Partnership (Sadovnicheskaya street, 57, building 1), K.S. Popov – Dzhamgarovs (Kuznetsky Most street, house 12/3, building 1) and others.
The continuity of generations
The collective of the architectural and restoration workshop “Faros” has more than 20 employees. These are both architects and designers – all restorers with higher professional education, certified by the Ministry of Culture of Russia for the development of design documentation for the restoration of architectural monuments. At some sites, the scientific management of restoration work is carried out by the honorary restorer of Moscow Galina Stepanenko.
“Despite the fact that the collective of the workshop is predominantly female, there are no impossible tasks for our employees. The architects have been trained to work at a height of over 50 meters and fearlessly climb the scaffolding to inspect and measure architectural details, ”notes Denis Pisarev.
The succession of generations is especially appreciated in the workshop. Experienced employees with more than 40 years of experience willingly share the secrets of the craft and teach young colleagues to read monuments in the same way as an open book: for example, notice where the facade originally had brick or white stone decor, and where the stoves were located in the interior.
Students from leading industry universities – the National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (NRU MGSU), as well as the Moscow Architectural Institute regularly come to the organization for practice. For the second year in a row, the head of the architectural and restoration workshop takes part as chairman in the work of the state examination commission of the NRU MGSU in the specialties “architecture” and “reconstruction and restoration of architectural heritage”.
One of the recent tasks of the employees of the “Faros” workshop is the development of design documentation for the restoration of eight towers of the Donskoy stauropegic monastery, founded in the 16th century (Donskaya Square, 1/3).
“Despite the fact that the tower seems to be such a small object of capital construction, over the long history of its existence, it has“ overgrown ”with difficulties and mysteries no less than any major object of cultural heritage, such as a temple or any residential building, chambers, – says Denis Pisarev. – Before the start of work, the towers looked quite strong. But what they have not seen in their lifetime: they were both warehouse and residential apartments, consisting of one room with an area of 25-35 square meters. “
During research, it turned out that the cultural layer inside the towers grew by almost one meter. Because of this, the previously multi-level floor has become a single space. Initially, in the center of the room, the floor was lower and was decorated with a white stone plinth made of sawn limestone. And in the niches of the room, divided by massive walls, the floor was brick.
Although the Donskoy Monastery is part of the southern belt of the defensive fortresses of Moscow, it was built at a time when the defensive function of it was no longer required. And nevertheless, its towers are arranged in compliance with fortification traditions: small melee loopholes are lower, long-range loopholes are upper, a machine belt (from hinged loopholes) along the fortress walls, merlons (teeth) at the level of the combat course. The towers, which are crowned with white-stone elements – pinnacles (pyramids) with the end of balls and spikes, are decorated with scallops made of straight and profiled bricks.
“As a rule, during the restoration work, traditional technologies are used: blotting out – replacing damaged bricks, injecting cavities in the masonry with specialized restoration compounds, recreating the lost metal bonds by welding the missing parts. At the same time, today, new building materials, mortars, protective compounds come to the service of the restorers, the use of which makes it possible to carry out restoration work as rarely as possible in the future. This extends the life and service life of the preserved objects of cultural heritage many times over, ”explains Denis Pisarev.
Another task of the specialists is the restoration and adaptation for modern use of several architectural monuments in Moscow, which once served as tenement houses.
One of these buildings was A.M. Mikhailov, which is an object of cultural heritage of regional significance and was erected in 1903 by the architect A.E. Erichson (Bolshaya Dmitrovka, house 9, building 1). The facade of the building was tiled and decorated with high-relief images – mascarons – in the Egyptian style. In 1906-1907, the Moscow Art Theater actor L.M. Leonidov, later – the famous pop artist N.F. Baliev, and in the 1920s – 1930s the writer M.A. Bulgakov.
“During the restoration of the facades of the building, the craftsmen had a chance to work with materials that were used by the architect Erichson: these are gypsum mascarons in the Egyptian style, concrete panels with subjects also on Egyptian themes, and the original form of crowning cornices, in the design of which special gutters were arranged for collecting rainwater and their neat drainage to drainpipes, and stunningly beautiful ceramic tiles, as well as bricks with a ceramic coating, which are one of the main decorations of the facades, ”says Denis Pisarev.
In addition to transforming the facade of the building, the craftsmen managed to restore part of the original interiors – the front porches.
The nearest plans of the specialists of the architectural and restoration workshop “Faros” include the development of documentation for the restoration of the Moscow monument of constructivism, a garage for trucks, erected in the 30s of the last century by the project of the architect K.S. Melnikov (Novoryazanskaya street, house 27, buildings 1, 3). The building is recognized as a cultural heritage site of regional importance. The craftsmen will have to strengthen the foundation, restore the brickwork, and dismantle the later extensions. The task of the specialists is to preserve not only the volumetric-spatial and planning structure of the garage buildings, but also the unique roofing structures that have served as overlapping for almost 100 years.
Recognition of mastery
The works of the architectural and restoration workshop “Faros” were awarded with the awards of the competition “Moscow Restoration – 2015”. Thus, the city estate of E.I. Vandyshnikova – E.M. Banza (Vorontsovo Pole street, house 3, building 1). The workshop specialists also won in the nomination “Scientific and methodological guidance during work at a cultural heritage site” for the restoration of the warehouses of the Association of the vodka factory (Sadovnicheskaya street, house 57, building 1).
And in 2021, for the restoration of the Khudozhestvenny cinema building, the Faros workshop received a special prize in the Best Completed Object competition of the Moscow City Planning Policy Department in the Restoration and Adaptation to the Modern Use of a Cultural Heritage Site nomination.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.