MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
We explore four different architectural styles while walking along the same street.
Myasnitskaya Street stretches from Lubyanskaya Square to Sadovo-Spasskaya Street, crossing the Boulevard Ring. It got its name in the 17th century – there were many butcher shops and houses of butchers here. Before that, one part of it was called Evplovka, in honor of the Church of Archdeacon Euplus, and the other – Frolovka, in honor of the Church of Saints Frol and Laurus. After the revolution, the street was renamed Pervomayskaya, since 1935 it bore the name of Sergei Kirov. The historical name returned to Myasnitskaya in 1990.
Under Peter I, nobles settled on Myasnitskaya, in the 19th century they were replaced by merchants and manufacturers. In the 1870s, show jumping was launched here and street lighting was installed – Myasnitskaya Street received gas lanterns one of the first in Moscow. Like all old Moscow streets, it keeps many stories. We invite you to get acquainted with several of them.
Perlov’s tea shop: Moscow chinoiserie
Myasnitskaya street, 19
The first building that you pay attention to when walking along Myasnitskaya is a magical house in the Chinese style. It was built in 1890 by order of the Moscow tea magnate Sergei Perlov and the first five years of its existence did not look so remarkable at all. At first it was an ordinary three-storey late Renaissance house, designed by Roman Klein. On the first floor, Perlov opened a tea shop, and on the other two he lived with his family and rented out rooms.
In 1895, Ambassador Extraordinary and Chancellor of the Chinese Empire Li Hongzhang was supposed to attend the coronation of Nicholas II. In honor of this event and in the hope of concluding a contract for a new supply of tea, Perlov decided to remodel the house in an oriental style, or chinoiserie (from the French la chinoiserie, literally – “Chinese”). Together with the architect Karl Gippius, they developed a new project: the facade of the house was decorated with external roofing tiles, the roof was crowned with a two-stage pagoda with bells. Perlov was a connoisseur of Chinese culture, Gippius visited China, so all the details of the decor were carefully checked. The entrance is made of purple marble, the portal above it was decorated with a relief panel with a peacock. Ceramic tiles and sculptural details such as dragons were custom-made by Chinese craftsmen.
The ambassador never visited this wonderful building, but the benefits of the changes were – the new type of tea shop began to attract more customers. Representatives of the aristocracy and merchants came for the favorite drink of Muscovites. It was here that for the first time in Moscow they began to sell tea in cans, and for honorable customers – in crystal boxes.
Profitable house I.E. Kuznetsova: the lion and the virgins
Myasnitskaya street, 15
Not far from Perlov’s store there is a house with a lion – this is also the name of Ivan Kuznetsov’s apartment building. The sculpture of a lion holding a coat of arms with a flower stands on a pedestal in the central arch.
The merchant Ivan Kuznetsov, who traded in porcelain, crystal and glassware, acquired this plot on Myasnitskaya in 1907. The house was built by his order in 1908-1910. Architects Boris Velikovsky, engineers Alexey Milyukov and the Vesnin brothers worked on the building project.
The apartment building is designed in the neoclassical style with elements of the then fashionable Art Nouveau. Above the deep central arch, there is an Ionic portico with pilasters (a flat vertical protrusion of the wall, similar to a column), on either side of which there are semicircular bay windows. The facade is decorated with a sculptural frieze (a decorative element in the form of a horizontal strip) depicting figures of ancient Greek virgins in tunics. The northern facade of the building is decorated with a sculptural figure of Mercury – the image of the god of trade reminds of the occupation of the first owner of the house.
In addition to the residential part, the building housed retail premises and offices. Here one could, in particular, buy rubber boots, galoshes and other rubber products from the well-known pre-revolutionary factory “Bogatyr”.
Among the people who lived in the house during Soviet times was the poet Yaroslav Smelyakov. You know one of the poems he wrote, even if his name seems unfamiliar. An excerpt from it is read by Alexander Demyanenko in the film “Operation Y” and other adventures of Shurik “(short story” Obsession “):
Reflecting in the window glass, a good girl Lida walks around the world without haste. Why is she good?
Ask the boy who lives in the house across the street about this; he lies down with this name and stands up with this name.
It is not for nothing that on the stone slabs, where a cute shoe stepped, “Good girl Lida”, he wrote in despair.
Chertkov’s estate: airy rococo
Myasnitskaya street, possession 7
Not far from the Lubyanka metro station, behind a cast-iron fence, there is an azure-colored manor house in the rococo style. This is the house of Chertkov, or the estate of the Saltykovs – Chertkovs. It is decorated with figures of the Atlanteans, which are propped up by ledges with cornices. The main entrance is accentuated by a wide balcony with a balustrade (a fence in the form of a row of figured posts), which also frames the roof. Rounded high windows on the second floor are close to each other and interspersed with pilasters, which gives the building an airy feeling.
In the 16th century, the wooden chambers of the Volynsky princes were located here. In the 18th century, the site was bought by the Smolensk governor and senator Aleksey Dolgoruky, and after him the Saltykov family became the owners of the estate. It was with them that the building was rebuilt under the leadership of the architect Semyon Karin. The main building was decorated in the Rococo style, outbuildings were erected, which were later rebuilt into side buildings. The estate was miraculously not damaged during the fire of 1812; according to legend, Napoleon spent the night here.
In 1831, the building was bought by retired colonel Alexander Chertkov, who made the estate one of the cultural centers of Moscow. His library was visited by Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Vasily Zhukovsky and many others. And in 1863, Chertkov’s son Grigory opened a public reading room in one of the wings, which Leo Tolstoy often visited while working on the novel War and Peace. This reading room was the first free private library in the country.
After the revolution, the building housed the House of Engineers. The appearance of the estate is familiar not only to Muscovites and tourists, but also to lovers of Soviet cinema: the films “The Return of Maxim” and “Seventeen Moments of Spring” were filmed there.
The building of the former Tsentrosoyuz: a masterpiece by Le Corbusier
Myasnitskaya street, 39
This unusual house also appears in many Soviet films. Among them are Vesna, Zastava Ilyich and Lev Yashin. The goalkeeper of my dreams. ” And its fame extends far beyond Moscow: it is the only building in Russia designed by the famous architect and pioneer of modernism Le Corbusier.
In 1928, the French architect won a three-stage competition for the best design for the building of the Central Union of Consumer Society, beating the Vesnin brothers, Ivan Leonidov and other famous constructivist architects. The house, built according to his project, became the world’s first large office complex with fully glazed facades and open interior spaces. In addition to a spacious room for two thousand workplaces, the house had a dining room, a library, and a gym.
In the project, the architect embodied his famous five principles of modern architecture, such as a free facade and layout, striped glazing, a flat roof for the garden and pillars. The latter was especially important, according to Le Corbusier, for the circulation of machines under the building, so one of the buildings is mounted on pylons.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.