MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
Monuments of constructivism are distinguished by their utility and simplicity, but they still require the careful attitude of workers during repairs, especially if the building is recognized as a cultural heritage site.
Architectural monuments can be found not only in the center of the capital. In the Lefortovo district in the southeast of Moscow, the working village of Dangauerka has stood for almost 100 years. The ensemble of residential buildings is recognized as a monument of constructivism, and to this day they have been preserved practically unchanged. One of the houses is now being renovated, which is being carried out by the capital Overhaul Fund… Read the mos.ru article on how the work is progressing, what makes the residential complex so remarkable, and why it is important to protect such areas.
Residential area of the constructivist era
Famous constructivist quarters are located near the Aviamotornaya metro station. The houses were built in the late 1920s – early 1930s; a group of architects headed by Mikhail Motylev worked on the project. According to the guide Georgy Makeev, it is not entirely accurate to call this microdistrict Dangauerovka or Dangauerovskaya Sloboda. Dangauerkovka was located to the east, right behind the railway. There was a boiler and foundry, founded by Heinrich Karl Dangauer, later – the Compressor plant. And this residential complex was named “New Houses”, but later inherited the name of the neighboring workers’ settlement. By the way, this is why the railway platform here was called New (now Aviamotornaya).
“It was one of the very first large-scale construction projects in Moscow after the October Revolution, before that there had been no housing construction. In those days it was the outskirts of the capital, and not just one house, but a whole town was built here, ”says Georgy Makeev.
An infrastructure was created for residents: kindergartens, schools, a fire station, a canteen and a bathhouse. It was planned to build more than 40 houses, but only 24 were built. The houses consist of typical sections that are connected to each other with original corner details – towers, balconies, semicircular bay windows.
All 24 houses have survived to this day practically unchanged, only the attached elevator shafts have appeared, they were mainly installed after the war. According to Georgy Makeev, they are also called thermometers (because of their external similarity). 12 houses from the ensemble were recognized as identified cultural heritage sites.
“Separately, the houses are dull, ordinary brick five-story buildings. But each of them is part of a grandiose ensemble. This is a housing estate of the era of constructivism, which can be used for guided tours. Constructivism is our brand, it is the only architectural style that was born in our country. Many foreigners come here to see this kind of architecture, ”says the guide.
At the finish line
Laconic forms, pure functionalism and a complete lack of decor – these features distinguish constructivist houses. House 3 on Pond-Klyuchiki Street is no exception. It is recognized as a cultural heritage site. The only major overhaul in the house was done only in 1956, so it was already in a deplorable state. And at the end of May, work began here.
Specialists have renewed the roof and all engineering systems – cold and hot water supply, drainage, sewerage, central heating and electrical networks. The renovation of the facade is coming to an end: it remains to lay the tiles on the basement and make new balconies (two old corner ones were cut off, they were in disrepair).
“The brick façade was cleaned of old paint, then primed and re-painted with a weather-resistant compound. During the work, an interesting detail was discovered: instead of a channel (support part, lintels. – Ed. Note), railway rails are used in the plinth, “says Maxim Sverdlov, head of the contractor’s section.
Experts attribute this feature to a possible shortage of metal during construction.
In the entrances, the windows were replaced by installing plastic double-glazed windows with wooden platbands. By the way, wooden windows have survived in many apartments.
“In the entrances, the walls were painted, the tiles were laid, the doors were changed. It remains to clean and paint the railings of the stairs, install the railings, ”said Alexander Klishin, deputy director of the contracting organization.
The work is already at the final stage, it is planned to complete them on schedule – in the fall of 2021.
Responsibility for memory
Before the start of the renovation, the organization received permission from the capital Department of Cultural Heritage… Also, the department coordinated the developed project, which is followed by the builders.
“Constructivist houses are easy to repair. In this building, the subject of protection is its height and crown cornices. The rest is being repaired taking into account the design documentation. During its development, scientific research is done and a specific list of works for the contractor is drawn up. At the same time, the project documentation goes through more stages of approval than with a major overhaul of an ordinary house, and the contractor is monitored not only by construction control, but also by the Department of Cultural Heritage, whose specialists are very careful about historical houses, ”says Irina Oderkova, Deputy Head of the Department for work with objects of the cultural service of construction control of the Fund for capital repairs of Moscow.
In addition, the designer and the contractor are monitored by residents and local MPs. According to Irina Oderkova, no complaints were received from them.
“These houses need to be preserved, and today they will give odds to many new buildings. This is one of the main tourist brands in Moscow, and I am sure that more and more excursions will be led here. There is an architectural ensemble here, we appreciate that this area has not yet been rebuilt, ”adds Georgy Makeev.
The house was also noted by filmmakers. He can be seen in the film “I am twenty years old” directed by Marlen Khutsiev. The main character of the film, Sergei Zhuravlev, lived here.
In addition to house 3 on Prud-Klyuchiki street, one more building is being put in order in Dangauerovka. Residential building 28/4 on Aviamotornaya street is also about to be overhauled.
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The program of the Fund for Overhaul of Moscow Apartment Buildings includes 383 cultural heritage sites. Now work is going on 114 residential buildings-monuments, and in 14 of them – restoration. According to the norms, major repairs in each house should take place every 25 years.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.