MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
We turn a walk along one of the most beautiful streets into an independent excursion.
In the 18th century, Arbat was inhabited by famous Moscow aristocrats – the Tolstoy, Gagarins, Trubetskoy, Sheremetevs. In 1808, the Arbat Theater was opened here – the news of the beginning of its construction was received with enthusiasm. “This idea is good, because most of the noble families live on the Arbat or near the Arbat,” wrote memoirist and passionate theater-goer Stepan Zhikharev.
By the end of the 19th century, Arbat was inhabited by various intelligentsia, and the street itself had a look similar to the modern one. It was noisy and crowded on the Arbat, there were many shops, confectioners and restaurateurs tried to move here. The street retained this character even after 1917, which made its own adjustments: for example, the Mosselprom canteen was opened in the building of the Prague tavern, which was popular before the revolution, sungin verse by Vladimir Mayakovsky.
The pedestrian Arbat in 1986 became and since then remains one of the most popular places for walking in the capital. Here, almost every house keeps amazing stories.
Profitable house A.T. Filatova
Arbat Street, 35
The building, reminiscent of a medieval fortress, was erected in 1913-1914 by Valentin Dubovskaya for the wife of the merchant Yakov Filatov. Earlier, the architect built for him on Ostozhenka the famous Moscow house “under a glass”. In both buildings, there are features of the neo-Gothic, beloved by Dubovsky. He decorated the house of Anna Filatova with statues of knights and bay windows, which turn into turrets. It is believed that Mikhail Bulgakov described one of the knights in his work “The Master and Margarita” – Koroviev-Fagot appears in his appearance in one of the final scenes. And also in this house Bulgakov settled the critic Latunsky – it is here that the enraged Margarita flies in to take revenge on the offender of her beloved Master.
“In the end, his attention was attracted by the luxurious bulk of an eight-story, apparently newly built house. Margarita went downstairs and, having landed, saw that the facade of the house was lined with black marble, that the doors were wide, that behind their glass you could see a cap with gold braid and a doorman’s buttons, and that the inscription “Dramlit’s House” was written above the doors in gold. Rising higher into the air, she eagerly began to read the names: Khustov, Dvubratsky, Kvant, Beskudnikov, Latunsky … “.
The writer has increased the number of floors in the house – in fact, there are seven. This is not surprising: Filatova’s house became one of the tallest buildings in Moscow of its time. The house was intended for wealthy citizens: multi-room apartments, marble staircases with oak railings, stained glass windows and even elevators with mirrors and leather seats. Before the October Revolution of 1917, the first floor housed the Maria Sats women’s gymnasium and one of the most expensive kindergartens in Moscow.
In Soviet times, large apartments became communal apartments, which were resettled only in 1975, after which the house was transferred to the USSR Ministry of Culture. From 1990 to the present day, the building houses the Central House of the Actor.
Profitable house Ya.M. Tolstoy
Arbat Street, Building 29
An apartment building with a hotel was built by Nikita Lazarev in 1904-1906 for Yakov Tolstoy, who belonged to the old noble family of the Tolstoy. The building became the last hotel in Moscow decorated in the Art Nouveau style.
In 1912-1913, another floor was added to the building. The facade of the house is symmetrical, the central projection (protruding part of the building) rhymes with the two side ones, and is also combined with white window frames. At the level of the fourth floor, it is decorated with a female mascaron and stucco molding in the form of chestnut leaves, which stretches over the windows through the entire facade. The risalit is crowned with an attic (wall above the cornice) with a dormer window, framed by a garland of curls of ribbons and flowers. On the side projections, the pattern of the balcony gratings resembles the floral ornament of the first Parisian metro stations.
Six of the 14 apartments were occupied by the family of the owner of the house. The first floor was reserved for shops. The building had a back door leading to a garden with a fountain where goldfish swam in summer. Famous personalities lived in the apartment building, among whom was Vladimir Lossky, an opera singer, soloist and director of the Bolshoi Theater.
Profitable house M.I. Khromova, M.A. Obukhov
Arbat Street, 55/32
The apartment building was built on the site of the estate in the 1870s according to the project of the architect Mitrofan Arsenyev for the noblewoman Maria Khromova. The first floor was for shops and the other two were for rent. As soon as the building was completed, the owner sold it to Nikolai Rakhmanov, a private assistant professor at Moscow University. Perhaps this determined the contingent of residents – the house was inhabited by professors and other representatives of the intelligentsia. Among them was the family of the professor of mathematics Nikolai Bugaev – she occupied apartment number seven. This apartment was often visited by the writer Leo Tolstoy and the composer Sergei Taneev.
It was here that Boris Bugaev, who became famous as a poet Andrei Bely, was born and lived for 26 years. In his apartment in 1903, a literary circle “The Argonauts” was established, which included symbolist poets. Konstantin Balmont, Valery Bryusov, Maximilian Voloshin and other writers visited Bely. Later the apartment was museumified.
The poet wrote about his house this way: “… white, balcony, decorated with molded cornices, raised with a round resemblance of a turret: three floors.” The corner turret, about which Bely writes, disappeared in Soviet times, when the fourth floor was added.
The main house of the city estate of R. Turgenev
Arbat Street, 44
Until 1812, on the site of the present house No. 44, there was a building with which the names of two famous writers of the 19th century are associated – albeit indirectly. Built in the 18th century for the great-grandfather of the writer Ivan Turgenev, the military and statesman Roman Turgenev, it later belonged to the grandmother of Fyodor Tyutchev.
From this house at the one that we can see today, the foundation and walls have been preserved. It was rebuilt after a fire. At the end of the 19th century, its facade was decorated in the Baroque style. Some elements, such as the wreath-shaped stucco moldings and the intertwining pilasters, have survived to this day.
In the 1830s, the Kikin family lived here. They were visited by Alexander Pushkin. In his youth, the poet courted Elizaveta Ushakova, who owned this house in 1868-1872, and even thought to marry her.
Before the October Revolution, the building housed the Moscow Dental School. Doctor Pavel Dauge worked in it, who later became one of the founders of dentistry in the USSR. In 1920, on the basis of the school, the Department of Dentistry of the Medical Faculty of Moscow University was opened. In 1922, the writer Sigismund Krzhizhanovsky lived in the house, and in the 1960s – the poet Nikolai Glazkov.
The building of the State Academic Theater named after Evgeny Vakhtangov
Arbat Street, 26/2
In 1921, the Third Studio of the Moscow Art Theater began to work here, which later became the State Theater named after Yevgeny Vakhtangov. The theater, which recently celebrated its 100th anniversary, began in the rebuilt former mansion of industrialist Vasily Berg – the auditorium for only 150 people was located in the living room. The building was gradually rebuilt, the hall expanded significantly. At that time, it looked different – its facade was decorated in the style of constructivism.
In July 1941, a bomb hit the building, destroying most of it. The restoration was entrusted to the architect Pavel Ambrosimov. He designed the building in the Stalinist Empire style – a distinctive feature of the theater was full-height pilasters covered with narrow vertical grooves – flutes. On the sides there are huge columns supporting a massive entablature – the upper horizontal ceiling. The theater opened its doors again in 1947.
Berg’s mansion, which began the life of the theater on the Arbat, was built in 1873 by the famous architect Alexander Kaminsky. More precisely, it was rebuilt from an older house that belonged to Vasily Sabashnikov. Here began the publishing work of his sons Mikhail and Sergei, whose books were especially fond of bibliophiles.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.