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Representatives of the five nuclear-weapon states under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), or the Nuclear Five, met in Paris on December 2-3, 2021 to hold the Tenth Nuclear Five Conference to discuss the preparatory process for the upcoming 10th Review Conference action of the NPT.
For more than 50 years since the entry into force of the NPT, it has been making its valuable contribution to the well-being of humankind, being the most important international instrument for deterring the threat of nuclear proliferation. At the Paris Conference, the nuclear states reaffirmed their unwavering commitment to the NPT and all three of its foundations, as well as their unconditional support for the universalization of the Treaty. They stressed the paramount importance of the NPT as a cornerstone of the international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament regime.
Just one month before the start of the 10th NPT Review Conference (January 4-28, 2022), they reaffirmed their energetic determination to approach this momentous event in the most positive and constructive manner. In this regard, they expressed their full support for the agreed candidate for the position of its chairman, Gustavo Zlauvinen, in his efforts to achieve a meaningful result.
The Paris conference provided an opportunity to evaluate the efforts of the nuclear states and the contribution of this work to the strengthening of the NPT. 12 years after the launch of the interaction process in the nuclear “five”, the nuclear states are firmly convinced that this format has proven its usefulness and will continue to be a key mechanism for improving mutual understanding between nuclear states, as well as for considering measures with which they could would jointly promote the goals of the NPT.
They reaffirmed their commitment, in accordance with the NPT, in good faith to negotiate effective nuclear disarmament measures, as well as a general and complete disarmament treaty under strict and effective international control. They support the ultimate goal of achieving a nuclear-weapon-free world without compromising anyone’s security. By helping to reduce the degree of international tension and create conditions for stability, security and trust between countries, the NPT makes a significant contribution to nuclear disarmament and the reduction of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The NPT continues to help create the conditions necessary for further progress in nuclear disarmament.
They also noted the role of the NPT in helping to ensure that, in accordance with Article III of the Treaty, the diversion of nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices will not be tolerated. The NPT is the basis for promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear technology and providing access to it for the benefit of the entire world. In this regard, they reaffirmed their full and unwavering support to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the application of Safeguards Agreements and their Additional Protocols, in promoting the benefits of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in verifying that States are complying with their nuclear non-proliferation obligations.
They also discussed the situation around the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the importance of its entry into force 25 years after its opening for signature, and recalled the importance of moratoriums on nuclear tests to achieve disarmament and non-proliferation goals.
They reviewed the progress made in various areas of work within the framework of the nuclear “five” engagement process in preparation for the 10th NPT Review Conference.

a) They exchanged information on updates to their nuclear doctrines and nuclear policies and reaffirmed their commitment to ongoing discussions in this area, which contribute to enhancing predictability, confidence and mutual understanding among nuclear-weapon states. As such, they see this area of ​​work as a significant risk mitigation measure and reaffirm their intention to continue such discussions and to hold a side event on the NPT Review Conference on nuclear doctrines and nuclear policies.

b) They are aware of their responsibility to work together to reduce the risk of nuclear conflicts. They intend to continue their fruitful work to reduce strategic risks in the format of the nuclear “five” during the next NPT review cycle to reduce the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons. These measures are complementary to the overarching goals of the NPT and are consistent with the long-term efforts of nuclear-weapon states to achieve disarmament and the ultimate goal of a nuclear-weapon-free world without compromising anyone’s security.

c) They approved the second edition of the Glossary of Key Nuclear Terms of the Nuclear Five, which contributes to increasing the level of mutual trust and understanding among nuclear states. They decided to present the Glossaries as a working document of the nuclear “five” at the 10th NPT Review Conference and to hold an event on the sidelines of the Conference on this issue.

d) The countries of the nuclear “five” reaffirmed their commitment to the goals of nuclear-weapon-free zones, including a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Southeast Asia, and recalled the importance of advancing consultations between the nuclear states and the ASEAN countries on the Protocol to the Zone Treaty free of nuclear weapons in Southeast Asia. They also noted their support for the establishment in the Middle East of a zone free of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery.

e) They reaffirmed their support for the negotiation of a non-discriminatory, multilateral and effectively internationally verifiable Treaty banning the production of fissile material for purposes of nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices (FMCT), based on Shannon’s Mandate and with the participation of all States in the Conference on Disarmament.

f) The countries of the nuclear “five” noted the general benefits of the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and the need to strengthen this component of the NPT. Specifically, they reaffirmed their strong support for increasing access by NPT states to the many benefits of nuclear energy, science and technology and their peaceful applications, as well as their support for the role of nuclear energy in addressing climate change and achieving sustainable development goals. … They will work to advance the peaceful uses of nuclear energy during the 10th NPT Review Conference.

The Paris conference also provided an opportunity for substantive discussion among nuclear-weapon states on the international security climate, non-proliferation issues and the importance of strategic stability. They agreed on the need for an early full return to the JCPOA and a complete, verifiable and irreversible denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.
They stressed the importance of transparency and communication. In this context, they held fruitful discussions with representatives of the NPT Bureau, non-nuclear-weapon States and civil society, and intend to keep all channels of communication open in order to contribute to a positive outcome of the NPT Review Conference. They decided to launch a pilot project to develop a Network of Young Professionals from the Academic Community of the Nuclear Five.

Paris, December 3

EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and / or sentence structure not be perfect.

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