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MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –

Source: Peter the Great St Petersburg Polytechnic University – Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University –

This issue of the “Legends of Russian Science” project is dedicated to Nikolai Aleksandrovich Malyshev, a Soviet and Russian specialist in the field of hydropower, water management and hydraulic structures.

N. A. Malyshev was born on November 23 (December 6), 1911 into a peasant family. In 1929 he graduated from high school in Gorky (modern Nizhny Novgorod) and entered Gorky University. A year later he transferred to the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute at the Faculty of Hydraulic Engineering. In 1934, Nikolai Alexandrovich completed his studies, after which he went to build the Rybinsk hydroelectric complex on the Volga. There he worked his way up from an ordinary engineer to the head of the design department.

In 1941, N. A. Malyshev became the chief engineer of the construction of the Verkhne-Oka hydroelectric complex. During the Great Patriotic War, he headed the Department of Defense Works, built the Tagil Metallurgical Plant, Shirokovskaya (on the Kosva River) and Ponyshskaya (on the Chusovaya River) hydroelectric power stations. After the war, he restored destroyed objects, including the White Sea-Baltic Canal.

Nikolai Alexandrovich’s labor activity was connected with Hydroproject, where he got a job in 1947. He was the chief engineer of the Volga-Baltic waterway project and the construction of the Kuibyshev hydroelectric power station (since 1958 – the Volzhskaya hydroelectric power station named after Lenin, now the Zhigulevskaya hydroelectric power station). The scientist was the first to apply new solutions on a large scale in the design and construction of large hydraulic structures on soft soils. By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of August 9, 1958, he was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor with the Order of Lenin and the Hammer and Sickle gold medal.

In Egypt, Nikolai Alexandrovich designed the Aswan Dam on the Nile River. His new progressive solutions were approved by international experts and accepted for implementation. Now the Aswan hydroelectric power station is the largest complex hydraulic system of structures in Egypt. For the projects of the Aswan Dam in Egypt and the Euphrates hydroelectric complex in Syria, N. A. Malyshev was awarded government awards. He also led the design of hydroelectric projects in Vietnam, Peru and Argentina.

After returning to the Soviet Union, Nikolai Alexandrovich became deputy head of the Hydroproject Institute.

The scientist’s scientific activity was rich. His main works are devoted to the development of projects for unique complex waterworks, problems of water management, including the transfer of water from northern rivers to the southern regions of the country. N.A. Malyshev proposed and practically proved the possibility of building high-rise dams and powerful hydroelectric power stations on any natural foundation. In 1964 he defended his doctoral dissertation, in 1976 he became a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the department of physical and technical problems of energy (energy).

The scientist’s contribution is noted at the highest level. Laureate of the Stalin Prize, N. A. Malyshev was awarded the Orders of Lenin, the October Revolution, the Red Banner of Labor, the Badge of Honor and others.

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